PSY Chapter 1

  1. Astrology
    holds that the positions of the stars & planets at the time of one's birth determines personality & affects behavior
  2. Behaviorism
    the school of psychology that empasizes the study of overt, observable behavior.
  3. biopsychologist
    are interested in how behavior relates to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system
  4. Case Study
    in depth focus on all aspects of a single person
  5. Clinical psychologist
    a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological & behavioral disturbances
  6. Cognitive psychologist
    are primarily intrested in thinking
  7. Comparative psychologist
    study & compare the behavior of different species, especially animals
  8. Control group
    In a controlled experiement, the group of subjectsw exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable
  9. Correlation
    The existance of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures or variables
  10. Correlation Study
    A nonexperiemental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measure or variables
  11. Counseling psychologist
    a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional & behavioral disturbances
  12. Counselor
    A mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving serious mental disorders; for example, marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors
  13. Cortesy Bias
    a tendency to give "polite" or socially desirable answers
  14. Covert Behavior
    these are private, internal activities, such as thinking, dreaming, remembering, and other mental events
  15. Cultural psychologist
    study the ways in which culture affects human behavior
  16. Cultural relativity
    the idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs
  17. Dependent variable
    In an experiement, the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by independent variable
  18. Determinism
    The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices & actions if all such causes were known.
  19. Developmental psychologist
    the study of progressive changes in behavior & abilities from conception to death
  20. Evolutionary psychologist
    Study of the evolutionary origins of human behavior patterns
  21. Experiment
    A formal trail undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis about cause & effect
  22. Experimental group
    in a contolled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental conditions
  23. Extraneous variables
    Conditions or factors excluded from influencing the outcome of an experiment
  24. Frame of Reference
    a mental perspective used to interpret events
  25. Free will
    The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions
  26. Funtionalism
    The school of psychology concerned with how behavior & mental abilities help people adapt to their enviroments
  27. Gender psychologist
    study differences between females & males
  28. Gestalt psychology
    A school of psychology emphasizing studied thinking, learning & perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts
  29. Graphology
    pseudopsychology claim that personality traits are revealed by handwriting
  30. Humanism
    an approach to psychology that focuses on human expeience, problems, potentials & ideals
  31. Independent variables
    in a experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The values that this variable takes are chosen by the experimenter.
  32. Introspection
    to look within, to examine one's own thoughts, feelings or sensations
  33. Learning theroist
    study how & why learning occurs in humans & animals
  34. Observer bias
    the tendency of an observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations
  35. Observer effect
    changes in an organism's behavior brought about by an awarness of being observed
  36. Overt behavior
    directly observable actions & responses
  37. Palmist
    a false system that calims that lines on the hand reveal personality traits & predict the future
  38. Personality theorist
    study personality traits, motivation & individual differences
  39. Phernology
    claimed that personality traits are revealed by the shape of the skull
  40. Placebo
    An inacctive substance given in the place of a drug in psychological research or by physicians who wish to treat a complaint by suggestion
  41. Placebo effect
    Changes in behavior due to a participants expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect
  42. Population
    An entire group of animlas, people or objects belonging to a particular category (for example, all college students or all married women)
  43. Positive psychology
    The study of human strengths, virtues, and effective funtioning
  44. Pseudopsychology
    Any false & unscientific system of beliefs & practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior
  45. Psychiatric social worker
    A mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics & hospitals
  46. Psychiatrist
    A medical doctor with additional training in the diagnois & treatment of mental & emotional disorders
  47. Psychoanalysis
    A Freudian therepy that emphasizes the use of free association dream interpretation, resistances & transferences to uncover unconscious conflicts
  48. Psychoanalyst
    A mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis
  49. Psychodynamic theory
    Any theory of behavior, that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives & unonscious forces.
  50. Psychologist
    A person highly trained in the methods, fcatual knowledge & theories of psychology
  51. Psychology
    the scientific study of behavior & mental processes
  52. Random assignment
    The use of chance (for example, flipping a coin) to assign subjects to experimental & control groups
  53. Representaive sample
    a small, randomly selected part of a larger populations that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole populations
  54. Repression
    the unconscious process by which memories, thoughts or impulses are held out of awareness
  55. Research method
    a systematic approach to answering scientific questions
  56. Researcher bias
    changes in particpants' behavior caused by the uninteded influence of a researcher's actions
  57. Self Image
    Total subjective perception of one's body & personality (another term for self-concept)
  58. Self-Actualtization
    the ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential
  59. Self-evaluation
    to apprasing yourself as good or bad
  60. Self-fullfilling prophecy
    an expectation that prompts people to act in ways that make the expectation come true
  61. Sensation & perception-psychologist
    investigate how we discern the world through our senses
  62. Social norm
    rules that define acceptable & expected behavior for members of a group
  63. Stimulus
    any physical energy sensed by an organism
  64. structuralism
    the school of thought concerned with anyalyzing sensations & personal experience into basic elements
  65. Survey method
    the use of public polling techniques to answer psychological questions
  66. unconscious
    contents to the mind that are beyond awarness, especially impulses & desires not directly known to a person
  67. uncritical acceptance
    the tendency to beleive generally positive or flattery descriptions of oneself
  68. Sigmund Freud
    psychoanalytic approach and the unconscious
  69. Edward Titchener
    structuralism & Introspection
  70. William James
  71. Max Wertheimer
    Gestalt psychology
  72. Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
    Humanistic approach
  73. John B. Watson & B. F. Skinner
  74. Abraham Maslow
  75. Wilhem Wundt
    Father of Psychology
  76. Who wrote the influential textbook on animal behavior titled "The Animal Mind"
    Margret Washburn
  77. First woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology
    Margret Washburn
  78. Wrote the first psychology textbook titled "Principles of Psychology"
    William James
  79. "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might, select...
    John B. Watson
  80. 1rst African American Female awarded Ph.D. in Pscyholgy
    Inez Beverly Prosser
  81. Bilogical Perspecitve/(1) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
    (Biopsychological View)
    • Human & animal behavior is the rsult of internal physical, chemical & biological processes.
    • seeks to explain behavior through activity of the brian & nervous system, physiology, gentics, the endocrine system, & biochemistry; neutral, reductionistic, mechanistic view of human nature/
  82. Evolutionary View/(2) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
    • Huaman & animal behavior is the result of the process of evolution.
    • Seeks to explain behavior through evolutionary principles based on natural selction; neutral, reductionistic, mechanistic view of human nature
  83. Psychological Perspecitve/(3) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
    Behavorist View
    • behavior is shaped & controlled by one's enviroment
    • Emphasizes the study of observable behavior & the effects of learning; stresses the influence of external rewards & punishments; neutral, scientific, somewhat mechanisitc view of human nature
  84. Congnitive View/(4) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
    • much human behavior can be understood in terms of the mental processing of information
    • Concerned with thinking, knowing, perception, understanding, memory, decision making, & judgment; explains behavior in termsw of information processing; neutral somewhat computer-like view of human nature.
  85. Psychodynamic View/(5) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
    • Behavior is directed by forces withing one's personality that are often hidden or unconscious.
    • Emphasizes internal impulses, desires, & conflicts-especially those that are unconscious; views behavior as the result of clashing forces withing personality; somewhat negative, pessimistic view of human nature.
  86. Humanistic View/(6) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
    • Behavior is guided by one's self-image, by subjective perceptions of the world, and by needs for personal growth.
    • Focuses on subjective, conscious experience, human problems, potentials, and ideals; emphasizes self-image & self-actualization to expalin behavior; positive, philosophical view of human nature.
  87. Sociolculture Perspective/(7) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
    Socioculture View
    • Behavior is influenced by one's social & cultural context.
    • Emphasizes that behavior is related to the social & cultural enviroment within which a person is born, grows up, & lives from day to day; neutral, interactionist view of human nature
  88. 7 major perspectives in modern psychology
    • Biopsychological view
    • evolutionary view
    • behavioristic view
    • cognitive view
    • psychodynamic view
    • humanistic view
    • sociocultural view
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PSY Chapter 1
PSY Chapter 1 Study Guide