When conducting an experiment to determine whether a causal relationship exists between two variables, what is the most common practice to reduce the possibility of studying biased samples?
C) . random assignment of participants to conditions
Ellie is looking for a summary of research on the effect size of childhood abuse on adult depression. Which of the following scientific sources would be an ideal source?
B) . a meta-analysis
Famed lemon scientist, Dr. C. I. Truss, has just published a paper demonstrating that drinking lemonade every day for two years straight can significantly improve one’s IQ. Scientists reading his paper are quick to note that his sample size is in the thousands and the effect size between lemonade drinkers and the control group is 0.01. They are dismissive of his findings. In essence, they are doubting the _____ of his findings.
B) . statistical validity
In analyzing data from an experiment, if a significant effect exists in reality and you fail to detect the effect in your data, we refer to this as _____.
D) . a type 2 error
The _____ of a normal curve describes how symmetrically the individual scores are distributed around the central tendency.
C) . skew
James is asked about the best way to study for an exam. He responds that the best way to study is by making flash cards. He easily thinks of all the times he used flash cards and he earned As in his courses. However, he fails to take into consideration all the times he earned As and did not use flash cards, and the times he used flash cards and did not do well. His faulty thinking is an example of _____.
C) . the present/present bias
Theories are ______.
proven if an experiment is conducted on an entire population
D) . never proven, only supported
Which of the following is an example of being a consumer of research?
E) . Attending a psychological conference
A psychiatrist is testing a drug that treats depression. He has given the drug to all his patients, and all of them have experienced a decrease in depressive symptoms. Although this is interesting, his findings are limited because he did not have _____.
B) . a placebo group that did not receive the drug
Dan repeatedly hears the statement, ‘camel’s store water in their humps’, over the course of his life. Eventually he comes to believe it is a fact. This is an example of ______.
A) . the repetition-induced truth effect
Which of the following measures of central tendency is LEAST appropriate to use to describe the central tendency when there are many outliers in a dataset?
E) . mean
Which of the following is the difference between claims based on personal experience (anecdotal claims) and frequency claims?
E) . Anecdotal claims are not based on scientific studies but frequency claims are
Consider the following abstract: A study that followed almost 71,000 middle-aged Japanese adults for an average of 20 years found those who ate the most plant protein were 13% less likely to die and 16% less likely to die from cardiovascular causes, compared with those who ate the least, researchers reported in JAMA Internal Medicine. "When individuals eat more plant protein foods such as nuts, soy, and lentils, there is a significant improvement in cardiovascular risk factors such as blood lipids, blood pressure, and body weight," commented Dr. Frank Hu of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
From this abstract we may conclude _____________.
D) . For this population, choice of protein consumption can predict mortality rates
The act of reflecting on your inner thoughts, sensations, and intuitions describes what sources of knowledge?
A) . Introspection
Measurement of temperature in degrees Fahrenheit is an example of a variable on a _____ scale.
D) . interval
When is it more appropriate to use a bar graph rather than a line graph to visualize your data?
E) . When the variable on the x-axis is discrete, rather than continuous.
A distribution with two peaks is best described by ________.
A) . two modes
In which of the following scenarios should you be most skeptical of an authority?
B) . When they based their opinions on their intuition
Consider the following abstract: 43 depressed undergraduate women were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise treatment condition in which they participated in strenuous exercise, a placebo treatment condition in which they practiced relaxation exercises, or a no-treatment condition. Aerobic capacity was assessed before and after a 10-wk treatment period. Self-reported depression was assessed before, during, and after the treatment period. Results show that subjects in the aerobic exercise condition had reliably greater increases in aerobic capacity and reliably greater decreases in depression than did subjects in the relaxation or no-treatment conditions. There was also a reduction in depression that was independent of treatment; it is suggested that a no-treatment control condition is a necessity in research on depression. The findings provide clear evidence that participation in a program of strenuous aerobic exercise is effective in reducing depression.
From this abstract we may conclude _____________.
B) . aerobic exercise can reduce depression
Consider the following abstract: Research has shown that mindfulness can positively affect peoples’ lives in a number of ways, including relying less on previously established associations. We focused on the impact of mindfulness on implicit age and racial bias as measured by implicit association tests (IATs). Participants listened to either a mindfulness or a control audio tape and then completed the race and age IATs. Mindfulness meditation caused a decrease in implicit race and age bias. Analyses using the Quad Model suggested that this reduction was due to weaker automatically activated associations on the IATs.
What is the independent variable in this study? What is the dependent variable?
E) . independent: the audio tape listened to; dependent: measurement of IAT scores
Which of the following is true of operational definitions?
A) . Some psychological concepts are more difficult to operationally define than others.
Factors other than the independent variable that could account for significant results are called _____.
C) . confounds
The ordinate refers to _______; whereas the abscissa refers to _______.
B) . the y-axis, the x-axis
Occam’s razor states that the simplest solution is the best, all other things being equal. This speaks to a theory’s _______.
B) . parsimony
_______ validity concerns how well a conceptual variable has been operationalized for measurement.
A) . Construct
A common finding in the study of aggression is that exposure to television is associated with increased aggressive behavior in children. You suspect this relationship may not be causal because you are not sure which occurred first: watching television or being aggressive. You are questioning which of the following rules of causation?
E) . the criterion of temporal precedence
Dr. Quinn plans to attend a conference in Montreal next month and she is currently deciding how she will get there. Upon reflecting, she remembers hearing much more information about plane crashes than car crashes, and decides it would be safer to drive. Dr. Quinn is exhibiting what bias in reasoning?
B) . the availability heuristic
Benjamin is a social psychologist who studies marriage. He believes that marital satisfaction has two components: the ability to trust one’s partner and a belief that with mindfulness one can be a good spouse. He conducts a study with questionnaires to test his ideas. Assuming that his data match his theory, which of the following statements would be most appropriate?
B) . The data provide support for his theory
Dan feels like he is coming down with some kind of illness. He goes on WebMD to check his symptoms against possible causes and discovers they perfectly match the symptoms of ‘super flu’. Even though there has only been 2 known cases in history, Dan is convinced that he has ‘super flu’. Dan is exhibiting what bias in reasoning?
E) . Base-rate neglect
As the number of participants in an experiment grows, the _____ ordinarily becomes smaller.
E) . standard error of the mean
Dr. Jekyll has spent the last 30 years of his life teaching Bobo the gorilla how to understand grammar as a human does. It is the crowning achievement of his career and he immediately submits a manuscript to a major journal. The reviewers question whether his findings will generalize to other gorillas. In essence, they are doubting the _______ of his findings.
C) . external validity
_______ is the approach of collecting data and using it to develop, support, and/or challenge a theory.
D) . Empiricism
Dr. Ellison finds a relation between years spent in higher education and problem solving. Specifically, spending more years in formal education beyond high school is associated with higher scores on two different measures of problem solving. This is an example of which type of correlation?
C) . Positive Association
In the theory-data cycle, theories first lead to ______.
D) . questions
In inferential statistics, the intent of calculating a central tendency from your sample is to ______.
E) . estimate the central tendency in the population of interest
The ______ is what we are interested in making inferences about; the ______ is what we usually end up studying.
B) . population; sample
Dr. Frankenstein, a memory researcher, has recently published a paper demonstrating a causal link between number of hours slept before a test and test performance. He claims the extra hours of sleep help the students better consolidate the studied materials. His detractors claim that the students are simply better able to concentrate and pay attention to the questions. In essence, they are doubting the _____ of her findings.
C) . internal validity
When examining the statistical validity of a frequency claim, one should look for the _____.
C) . margin of error estimate
Consider the following abstract: A study in BMJ of data for 36,000 adults ages 40 and older found those who had any amount of physical activity were at lower risk of dying early, with those who were physically inactive about five times more likely to die prematurely than those who were most active. The analysis, based on eight studies in the US and Western Europe, found a steep decline in death risk as activity increased to a daily amount of 5 hours of light activity or 24 minutes of moderately intense activity, while 9.5 hours or more a day of sitting was associated with increased risk of premature death.
From this abstract we may conclude ______________.
D) . The amount of exercise one engages is associated with early mortality.
Asking questions worded or framed to get the answers we want is known as _______.
B) . confirmation bias
Relative to other scenarios, random sampling from a population increases ______, and random assignment of subjects to groups increases _______.
As discussed in lecture, Morling’s taxonomy of research measures may be faulty due to an artificial distinction between ______ and ______.
A) . observation; physiological measures
Why might a researcher choose purposive sampling over systematic sampling?
E) . External validity is not vital to the researcher's study
An educational psychologist is testing the discriminant validity of a new measure of mathematical learning difficulties. He gives his measure to a group of students along with another measure of verbal learning difficulties, which he predicts should not be strongly related to numerical learning difficulties. Which of the following correlations is the psychologist expecting to find in order to establish discriminant validity?
E) r = -0.18
The widespread use of undergraduates as samples in most psychological studies on human behavior is an example of _______.
C) . convenience sampling
When the participants of a study do not know what condition or group they are in, the study design can be described as ______.
E) . blind
While taking a Buzzfeed personality quiz, you notice the end results do not really seem to match you at all. Thinking that this may reflect a fluke or bug in the code, you decide to re-take the quiz and answer every question exactly the same. Again, you get the same results, and they still do not sound anything like you. This quiz is ______.
B) . reliable but not valid
What is the difference between a ratio scale of measurement and an interval scale of measurement?
E) . a ratio scale of measurement has a zero value that actually means 'nothing' or 'the absence of something'
In which of the following cases might a small effect still be important?
E) . When the effect being studied has life-or-death implications
Why do studies that use probability samples have excellent external validity?
E) . All members of the population are equally likely to be represented in the sample
Within the three Rs recommended by the IACUC, Replace suggests substituting lower animals for higher animals. What is the chief criticism of this recommendation?
E) . It assumes a hierarchy in evolution
Assuming there has been no bias in sampling, increasing the size of one’s sample will ______ over time.
E) . increase statistical validity
Dr. Watson plans to interview several teachers about their attitude toward teaching children who have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is an example of what type of measurement?
D) . Self-report measurement
Dr. Caligari studies sleepwalking. He has recently computed a correlation between the number of hours a sleepwalker spends watching television and the amount of time they spend sleepwalking. His analysis reveals a correlation coefficient of 1.3 between the two variables. From this result we may conclude ______.
C) . Dr. Caligari has no understanding of how to compute correlations
______ is/are commonly used to determine internal reliability.
E) . Cronbach's alpha
Which of the following is a necessary component of a longitudinal design?
A) . Measuring the same variables at two points in time
When assessing the statistical validity of a frequency claim, one should look at the _____.
E) . margin of error estimate
Which of the following is NOT something a scientist might ask when assessing a causal claim?
E) . Was the casual relationship proven?
If researchers measure every member of a population, they have ______.
C) . conducted a census
To reduce potential researcher biases in observational studies, some principle investigators will choose to ______.
B) . enlist the assistance of multiple observers
Which of the following statements is true of observational data?
D) . Observational measures can be used to make frequency claims
Which of the following is NOT true regarding how laypeople tend to interpret causality?
B) . They attribute effects to causes based more on the sufficiency of the cause than the necessity of the cause
Which of the below is most informative concerning a potential causal relationship between events A and B, where r equals the correlation between A and B?
C) . r = 0
Dr. Lecter is interested in students’ attitudes toward science and the effect of those attitudes on performance on standardized tests. He chooses his local school district to study. There are 15 high schools, and he randomly chooses five. Then, of the 2,500 students in each of those five schools, he randomly recruits 250 students. This is an example of which of the following sampling techniques?
C) . multistage sampling
Unobtrusive observation is done to counteract which of the following?
C) . Reactivity
When examining an association claim using a bar graph, a possible association is indicated by which of the following?
C) . A difference in height between the bars
Which of the following is not widely considered a problem with self-report?
B) . Self-report data is almost always noisier than other forms of data
Pure (basic) research is concerned with ______, while applied research is concerned with _______.
B) . questions spurred by curiosity; questions aimed at solving existing problems
If a researcher is asking why the relationship between two variables exists, she is curious about which of the following?
A) . mediation
Which of the following is true of multiple regression?
C) . Adding more predictors means the researcher is controlling for more variables
Psych 344 Old Test Questions
Old Test Questions from Psych 344: Research Methods