Intro to counseling chapter 10

  1. Although the approaches Behavior theory  and CBT are quite diverse, what attributes do they share?
    (1) a collaborative relationship between client and therapist,

    (2) the premise that psychological distress is often maintained by cognitive processes,

    (3) a focus on changing cognitions to produce desired changes in affect and behavior,

    (4) a present-centered, time-limited focus,

    (5) an active and directive stance by the therapist, and

    (6) an educational treatment focusing on specific and structured target problems

     In addition, both cognitive therapy and the cognitive behavioral therapies are based on a structured psychoeducational model, make use of homework, place responsibility on the client to assume an active role both during and outside therapy sessions, emphasize developing a strong therapeutic alliance, and draw from a variety of cognitive and behavioral strategies to bring about change. Therapists help clients examine how they understand themselves and their world and suggest ways clients can experiment with new ways of behaving
  2. Which Psychologist is this?

     was born in Pittsburgh but escaped to the wilds of New York at the age of 4 and lived there (except for a year in New Jersey) for the rest of his life.

    He was hospitalized nine times as a child, mainly with nephritis, and developed renal glycosuria at the age of 19 and diabetes at the age of 40.

    Despite his many physical challenges, he lived an unusually robust, active, and energetic life until his death at age 93.

    Early in 1955 he developed an approach to psychotherapy he called rational therapy and later rational emotive therapy, and which is now known as rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT).

    referred to as the grandfather of cognitive behavior therapy.

    At one point in his life, he had exaggerated fears of speaking in public.

    abrasive, humorous, and flamboyant style. In his workshops it seemed that he took delight in giving vent to his eccentric side, such as peppering his speech with four-letter words.

    He greatly enjoyed his work and teaching REBT, which was his passion and primary commitment in life.
    ALBERT ELLIS (1913–2007)
  3. These are assumptions about what therapy?

    -people contribute to their own psychological problems, as well as to specific symptoms, by the rigid and extreme beliefs they hold about events and situations.

    - that cognitions, emotions, and behaviors interact significantly and have a reciprocal cause-and-effect relationship.

    Has consistently emphasized all three of these modalities and their interactions, thus qualifying it as a holistic and integrative approach
    Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
  4. The basic hypothesis of what therapy is that our emotions are mainly created from our beliefs, which influence the evaluations and interpretations we make and fuel the reactions we have to life situations.
    Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
  5. A large part of what therapy is seen as an educational process. The therapist functions in many ways like teacher, collaborating with the client on homework assignments and introducing strategies for constructive thinking. The client is the learner who then practices these new skills in everyday life.
    Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
  6. What therapy is based on the premise that we learn irrational beliefs from significant others during childhood and then re-create these irrational beliefs throughout our lifetime?
    Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
  7. What are three basics musts (or irrational beliefs) of REBT we internalize that inevitably lead to self-defeat ?
    1. “I must do well and be loved and approved by others.”

    2. “Other people must treat me fairly, kindly, and well.”

    3. “The world and my living conditions must be comfortable, gratifying, and just, providing me with all that I want in life.”
  8. What framework is central to REBT theory, and is a useful tool for understanding the client's feelings, thoughts, events, and behavior?
    The ABC framework
  9. What is this this describing? 

    There is the existence of an activating event or adversity, or an inference about an event by an individual.  

    There is the emotional and behavioral consequence or reaction of the individual;The reaction can be either healthy or unhealthy.  

    (the activating event) does not cause  (the emotional consequence). Instead which is the person’s belief about the activating even, largely creates the emotional reaction.
    The ABC framework
  10. What do the letters stand for in the ABC framework ?
    • A- Activating even 
    • C- emotional and behavioral consequence or reaction 
    • B- Behavior
  11. What is the D in the ABC framework?
    Disputing -D encompasses methods that help clients challenge their irrational beliefs.
  12. What are the three components of the disputing process?
    • 1. detecting 
    • 2. Debating 
    • 3. discriminating
  13. What is this describing ? 

    Clients learn to discriminate irrational (self-defeating) beliefs from rational (self-helping) beliefs

    Once they can detect irrational beliefs, particularly absolutistic “shoulds” and “musts,” “awfulizing,” and “self-downing,” clients debate dysfunctional beliefs by logically, empirically, and pragmatically questioning them.

    Clients are asked to vigorously argue themselves out of believing and acting on irrational beliefs.
    Disputing ( from the ABC framework)
  14. What does E represent in the ABC ( DE) framework ?
    A new effective philosophy, which also has a practical side.

    A new and effective belief system consists of replacing unhealthy irrational thoughts with healthy rational ones. “Homework” can enhance and maintain these therapeutic gains and personal insights.
  15. What does the therapeutic process of REBT involve?
    A collaborative effort between therapist and client to choose realistic and life-enhancing therapeutic goals.

    The therapist’s task is to help clients differentiate between realistic and unrealistic goals and also between self-defeating and life-enhancing goals.

    A basic aim is to teach clients how to change their dysfunctional emotions and behaviors into healthy ones.

    According to Ellis and Ellis (2011) another goal of REBT is to assist clients in the process of achieving unconditional self-acceptance (USA), unconditional other-acceptance (UOA), and unconditional life-acceptance
  16. What is the Therapist's role in REBT?
    Experience in therapy and relationship

    Focuses on here and now

    No transference


    Warm relationships help but not required


  17. What are the therapist's specific tasks in REBT?
    The first step is to show clients how they have incorporated many irrational absolute “shoulds,” “oughts,” and “musts” into their thinking. The therapist disputes clients’ irrational beliefs and encourages clients to engage in activities that will counter their self-defeating beliefs by replacing their rigid “musts” with preferences.

    A second step in the therapeutic process is to demonstrate how clients are keeping their emotional disturbances active by continuing to think illogically and unrealistically. In other words, when clients keep reindoctrinating themselves, they create their own psychological problems. Ellis reminds us that we are responsible for our own emotional destiny (A. Ellis, 2004b, 2010).

    To get beyond mere recognition of irrational thoughts, the therapist takes a third step—helping clients change their thinking and minimize their irrational ideas.

    The fourth step in the therapeutic process is to strongly encourage clients to develop a rational philosophy of life so that in the future they can avoid hurting themselves again by believing other irrational beliefs.
  18. What do these techniques have to do with REBT ?

    - exploring clients’ early history and making connections between their past
    and present behavior
    -  free association,

    -working with dreams,

    - dealing with transference phenomena.
    It isn't valued much and differs from many other therapies because of this.
  19. What are some cognitive techniques available to the therapist?
    Disputing irrational beliefs -The most common cognitive method of REBT consists of the therapist actively disputing clients’ irrational beliefs and teaching them how to do this challenging on their own.

    Doing cognitive homework.-REBT clients are expected to make lists of their problems, look for their absolutist beliefs, and dispute these beliefs.

    Bibliotherapy.Because therapy is seen as an educational process, clients are encouraged to read REBT self-help books such as Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy: It Works for Me—It Can Work for You

    Changing one’s language-REBT rests on the premise that imprecise language is one of the causes of distorted thinking processes. Clients learn that “musts,” “oughts,” and absolute “shoulds” can be replaced by preferences.

    ŠŠ Psychoeducational methods.-REBT programs introduce clients to various educational materials such as books, DVDs, and articles.
  20. REBT practitioners use a number of different modalities  to dispel self-defeating cognitions and to teach people how to acquire a rational approach to living. What are they?
    cognitive, emotive, behavioral, and interpersonal
  21. What are the emotive Techniques?
    - rational emotive imagery (REI), clients are asked to vividly imagine one of the worst things that might happen to them and to describe their disturbing feelings. Clients are shown how to train themselves to develop healthy emotions, and as their feelings about adversities change, they stand a better chance of changing their behavior in the situation.

    Humor. Ellis contends that emotional disturbances often result from taking oneself too seriously.

    Role playing. Role playing has emotive, cognitive, and behavioral components.

    Practicing shame attacking exercises can reduce, minimize, and prevent feelings of shame, guilt, anxiety, and depression .The exercises are aimed at increasing self-acceptance and mature responsibility, as well as helping clients see that much of what they think of as being shameful has to do with the way they define reality for themselves.
  22. What is the purpose of emotive techniques?
    They tend to be vivid and evocative in nature, and their purpose is to dispute clients’ irrational beliefs.

     Their purpose is not simply to provide a cathartic experience but to help clients change some of their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.
  23. Which psychologist is this?

    His childhood, although happy, was interrupted by a life-threatening illness when he was 8 years old. As a consequence, he experienced blood injury fears, fear of suffocation, and anxiety about his health. Beck used his personal problems as a basis for understanding others and for developing his cognitive theory.

    Beck attempted to validate Freud’s theory of depression, but the results of his research did not support Freud’s motivational model and the explanation of depression as “anger turned inward.”

    founder of cognitive therapy (CT), one of the most influential and empirically validated approaches to psychotherapy.
  24. What's the difference in the base of REBT and CT?
    cognitive therapy (CT) about the same time that Ellis was developing REBT. They were not aware of each others’ work and created their approaches independently.

    Ellis developed REBT based on philosophical tenets, whereas Beck’s CT was based on empirical research
  25. What does this describe ?

    Negative views of the self (self-criticism),the world (pessimism), and the future (hopelessness). Beck believed this  maintained depression, even when negative thoughts were not the original cause of an episode of depression
    negative cognitive triad
  26. What are the similarities of REBT and CT?
    All of these therapies are active, directive, time limited, present-centered, problem-oriented, collaborative, structured, and empirical.

    They include homework assignments and require clients to explicitly identify problems and the situations in which they occur
  27. Three theoretical assumptions of CT are ?
    • (1) that people’s thought processes are accessible to introspection,
    • (2) that people’s beliefs have highly personal meanings, and
    • (3) that people can discover these meanings themselves rather than being taught or having them interpreted by the therapist
  28. Beck identifies several common cognitive distortions... What are they?
    Arbitrary inferences are conclusions drawn without supporting evidence. This includes “catastrophizing,” or thinking of the absolute worst scenario and outcomes for most situations.

     ŠŠ Selective abstraction consists of forming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an event while ignoring other information.

    ŠŠ Overgeneralization is a process of holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events or settings.

    Magnification and minimization consist of perceiving a case or situation in a greater or lesser light than it truly deserves. 

    Labeling and mislabeling involve portraying one’s identity on the basis of imperfections and mistakes made in the past and allowing them to define one’s true identity.
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Intro to counseling chapter 10
Intro to counseling