Lab Practical #3

  1. functions of the urinary system
    • filter metabolic wastes
    • regulate water content
    • storage + transport of urine
    • maintain pH balance and BP
  2. describe the location of the kidney
    behind the abdominal organs, near the back
  3. kidney
    filters metabolic wastes from blood, controls BP, regulates water content
  4. renal sinus
    filled with urine draining structures
  5. renal pelvis
    • urine collection system where major calyces drain into
    • innermost part
  6. renal hilus
    area where artery/vein/ureters enter and exit
  7. ureter
    transports urine from kidneys to bladder
  8. urinary bladder
    holds urine until it can be voided
  9. trigone
    • smooth triangular region of internal urinary bladder
    • formed by two ureteric orifices and internal urethral orifice
  10. urethra
    area from which urine exits the body
  11. external urethral sphincter
    relaxation allows for micturition, voluntary control
  12. renal capsule
    dense irregular CT covering each kidney
  13. renal cortex
    outermost region, where renal columns pass through
  14. renal medulla
    middle region, medullary pyramids with collecting tubules found here
  15. medullary/renal pyramid
    • house nephrons
    • separated by renal columns
  16. renal papilla
    tip of the renal pyramid
  17. renal column
    • house blood vessels that branch from renal artery
    • pass through renal medulla toward renal pelvis
  18. renal artery
    • arises off of abdominal aorta
    • supplies kidney with blood
  19. renal vein
    drain the kidney and connect it to IVC
  20. list the branching of the renal artery back to renal vein
    • renal artery
    • segmental artery
    • interlobar artery
    • arcuate artery
    • interlobular artery
    • peritubular capillaries
    • interlobular vein
    • arcuate vein
    • interlobar vein
    • renal vein
  21. nephron
    • functional unit of kidney
    • filters blood to regulate chemical concentrations and produce urine
  22. collecting duct
    • where the distal tubule empties into
    • further modifies the filtrate
  23. minor calyx
    first urine draining structure at the tip of the papilla
  24. major calyx
    urine from 3-4 minor calyces drain into this
  25. afferent arteriole
    blood enters glomerulus through this
  26. glomerulus
    • where blood gets filtered
    • fenestrated capillaries = super leaky
  27. efferent arteriole
    blood exits glomerulus through this
  28. peritubular capillaries
    • supply blood to proximal + distal tubules + nephron loops through interstitial fluid
    • located in CORTICAL NEPRHON
  29. vasa recta
    • supply blood to loop of Henle
  30. glomerular (bowman’s) capsule
    outer sheath of epithelial tissue around glomerulus
  31. parietal layer of glomerulus
    • outer layer
    • simple squamous epithelium
  32. capsular space of glomerulus
    where filtrate of blood is collected
  33. visceral layer of glomerulus
    • podocytes - modified epithelial cells
    • they wrap around glomerular capillaries and their pedicels (foot processes) form filtration slits
  34. proximal convoluted tubule
    newly formed filtrate modified here through absorption and secretion
  35. nephron loop (loop of Henle)
    important to concentrated urine
  36. descending limb of loop of Henle
    • permeable to water
    • thin segment
    • simple squamous with few microvilli
  37. ascending limb of loop of Henle
    • permeable to solute
    • thick segment
    • simple cuboidal with no microvilli
  38. Distal convoluted tubule
    • in cortex
    • absorption + secretion
  39. mucosa of ureter is made of
    • transitional epithelium
    • allows for stretching
  40. Mucosa of urinary bladder is made of
    • transitional epithelium
    • allows for stretching, holds 700-800 mL of urine
  41. muscularis of ureter
    • smooth muscle
    • propels urine by peristalsis
  42. muscularis of urinary bladder
    • smooth muscle
    • contracts to expel urine
    • forms circular band around urethral opening (internal urethral sphincter)
  43. glomerular filtration
    movement of fluid from blood to capsular space of Bowman’s capsule
  44. tubular reabsorption
    moves wanted substances from filtrate in tubule back into blood through IF
  45. tubular secretion
    moves unwanted substances from blood back into tubule for removal from body
  46. physical characteristics of urine
    • yellow-amber in color
    • mild smell when fresh
    • normal pH is 4.6-8
    • usually clear or slightly cloudy
  47. What is benedicts test used for
    sugar in the urine
  48. What is Biuret test used for
    proteins in the urine
  49. Albuminuria
    • protein in urine
    • sign of kidney disease bc healthy kidneys don’t let albumin pass through
  50. Bilirubinuria
    • presence of bile pigment in urine
    • indicates liver disease or damage
  51. Glycosuria
    • glucose in urine
    • due to excess plasma glucose bc of diabetes
  52. Hematuria
    • blood in urine
    • due to infection or injury
  53. Hemoglobinuria
    • presence of free hemoglobin in the urine
    • usually associated with hemolytic anemia, where RBCs are destroyed
  54. Ketonuria
    • ketone bodies in urine
    • seen during starvation or Type I DM
  55. Pyuria
    • presence of pus in urine
    • bc of bacterial infection
  56. Calculi
    • kidney stones
    • crystallization of Ca/Mg/uric acid salts
  57. Casts
    tiny tube shaped particles made of WBCs/RBCs/Kidney cells/proteins/fats
  58. Renal response to blood pressure increasing
    afferent arteriole dilates while efferent arteriole constricts > glomerular filtration rate stays the same
  59. effect of pressure on filtration rate
    increasing BP > increasing filtration
  60. renal response to respiratory problems
    • alkalosis/high pH > renal system retains H+, excretes HCO3-
    • acidosis/low pH > renal system retains HCO3-, excretes H+
  61. respiratory response to metabolic acidosis
    decreased pH stimulates medulla to increase ventilation > hyperventilation > increases loss of CO2 > less carbonic acid > pH increases
  62. scrotum
    • sac like structure that encloses, protects, and regulates temperature of testes
    • made of skin, CT, and smooth muscle
  63. testis
    produces sperm cells + secretes testosterone + inhibin
  64. epididymis
    • site of sperm maturation and storage
    • moves sperm cells to vas/ductus deferens
  65. spermatic cord
    • extends from the scrotum
    • tube made of layers of fascia and contains vas/ductus deferens
  66. vas (ductus) deferens
    • stores sperm
    • moves sperm to ejaculatory duct
  67. seminal vesicles
    • secrete alkaline fluid with nutrients, prostaglandins, and coagulating enzyme that supports sperm
    • enhance motility of sperm
    • maintain semen in female reproductive tract after ejaculation
  68. ejaculatory duct
    tansports sperm from ductus deferens into urethra
  69. prostate gland
    • secretes slightly alkaline fluid with nutrients and several components that support sperm
    • help activate sperm for fertilization
    • function as an anticoagulant
    • immunological functions
  70. prostatic urethra
    transports semen out of penis
  71. bulbourethral gland (cowper’s)
    • secretes mucus to lubricate glans penis
    • neutralizes acidic traces of urine in urethra
Card Set
Lab Practical #3
reproductive + development