Inguinal Canal, Scrotum, & Testis

  1. True / False: fetal testes are retroperitoneal in the posterior abdominal wall before they descend into the scrotum
  2. Components of the superficial inguinal ring
    • Intercrural fibers
    • Lateral crus
    • Medial crus
  3. Forms the medial border of the femoral canal
    Lacunar ligament
  4. Contents of inguinal canal
    • Spermatic cord / Round ligament of uterus
    • Cremasteric fascia / muscle
    • Ductus (vas) deferens
    • Artery of ductus deferens
    • Testicular a./v.
    • Pampiniform plexus
    • Ilioinguinal n.
    • Genital branch of genitofemoral n.
  5. Round ligament of the uterus attachment
    Attach within labia majora
  6. Landmark - Deep inguinal ring
    • Superior to inguinal ligament
    • Medial to femoral a.
    • Lateral to inferior epigastric vessels
    • Midway between ASIS / pubic symphysis
  7. Landmark - Superficial inguinal ring
    • Superior to the pubic tubercle
    • Medial to the femoral canal
  8. Forms deep inguinal ring
    Transversus abdominis m.
  9. Forms superficial inguinal ring
    External oblique aponeurosis
  10. Innervates upper medial thigh and anterior scrotum
    Ilioinguinal n. (L1)
  11. How does the ilioinguinal n. enter the inguinal canal?
    Enters between transversus abdominus / internal oblique mm.
  12. Contraction of inguinal canal
    • Occurs w/ increased abdominal pressure
    • Prevents herniation of bowel
  13. Origins of inferior epigastric vessels
    • Artery arises from external iliac a.
    • Vein drains into external iliac v.
  14. Blood supply to the ductus deferens
    Artery to ductus deferens (branch of inferior epigastric a.)
  15. Origin of testicular a/v
    Branch of lumbar aorta (supplies testicles)
  16. Cremasteric reflex
    • Ilioinguinal n. (L1)
    • Genitofemoral n. (L2)
  17. Innervates cremasteric muscle and lateral scrotum
    Genital branch of Genitofemoral n. (L1-L2)
  18. Which muscle does not contribute anything to inguinal canal?
    Transversus abdominis
  19. Contributes fibers to the cremasteric muscle / fascia
    Internal oblique
  20. Contributes fibers to internal spermatic fascia
    Transversalis fascia
  21. Contributes fibers to external spermatic fascia
    external oblique m.
  22. What is the round ligament of the uterus a remnant of?
  23. Floor of inguinal canal
    • Medial 1/2 of inguinal ligament
    • Lacunar ligament
  24. Roof of inguinal canal
    Arching fibers of transversus abdominis / internal oblique mm. on their way to form conjoint tendond
  25. Anterior wall of inguinal canal
    • External oblique aponeurosis
    • Reinforced laterally by internal oblique
  26. Posterior wall of inguinal canal
    • Transversalis fascia
    • Reinforced medially by conjoint tendon
  27. What is the processes vaginalis? How do testes descend in relation to it?
    • Evagination of peritoneum into scrotum
    • Testes descend from posterior body wall posterior to processes vaginalis
    • (behind two layers of peritoneum)
  28. Gubernaculum in adult testes
    • Gubernaculum guides testes as it descends
    • Remnant will help attach testes to scrotal wall
  29. Remnants of the processes vaginalis
    Obliterates except for visceral / parietal layers around the testes (tunica vaginalis)
  30. Contents of spermatic cord
    • External spermatic fascia
    • Cremasteric fascia
    • Genitofemoral n.
    • Internal spermatic fascia
    • Testicular a.
    • Pampiniform plexus
    • Ductus deferens (w/artery)
    • Lymphatics & ANS
  31. Innervation of the testis
    • Testis innervated by ANS (T10 - L1/2)
    • Vagal parasympathetics! (nausea)
    • Visceral afferents (sympathetics) from T7
    • Pain fibers travel w/ sympathetics
  32. Why is tunica vaginalis present only on anterolateral surface of testes?
    Testes descended behind both layers of processes vaginalis
  33. Tunica albuginea
    • "White tunic"
    • Thick CT deep to visceral layer of tunica vaginalis
  34. What type of muscle makes the dartos muscle
    smooth muscle
  35. What type of muscle makes the cremasteric muscle
    Skeletal muscle
  36. Site of direct hernias
    Hesselbach's traingle (medial to epigastric vessels)
  37. Hernial coverings: direct vs. indirect
    • Direct: covered by peritoneum
    • Indirect: covered by peritoneum and layers of spermatic cord
Card Set
Inguinal Canal, Scrotum, & Testis
Exam 3