Erikson's Developmental Theory
- 1. Based on Freud's Emphasis on unconscious Motivation.
- 2. Place emphasis on the ego
- 3. premise that people are basically rational and that behavior is largely due to ego functioning.
- 4. Each of the 8 stages involves a psychosocial task that is to be mastered. if not mastered, the person still continues to develop, but the ego is damaged and subsequent stages will be affected.
Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development
- 1. trust vs. Mistrust (0-18 months)
- 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (18mth -3 yrs)
- 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6)
- 4. Industry vs. inferiority (6-12)
- 5. Identity vs. Role confusion (12-18)
- 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (18-40)
- 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (40-65)
- 8 Ego Integrity vs. Despair (65 - death)
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
(0-18 months) The psychosocial task during this stage is to achieve a balance between trust and mistrust. Basic trust develops in the context of the relationship between the infant and the primary caregiver and for the foundation for all other sages of development. failure to master the task can result I pervasive mistrust of others or dependent, unthinking, ridged adulation of others.
2. Autonomy Vs. Shame and Doubt
(18 months to 3 years) The toddler's psychosocial task during this stage is to achieve a sense of independence over her own body in the context of relationships with primary caregivers. If a child experience autonomy (in walking, exploring, etc.) she will gain confidence and pride, which then becomes ego strengths. if the child is overcontrolled or prohibited from exploring or becoming autonomous, she is likely to feel doubtful of her own abilities and excessive shame.
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
(3-6 years) The child's psychosocial task during this stage is set goals and carry out plans without infringing on the rights of others. Exerting too much control (or taking action that does infringe on the rights of others) results in disapproval from adults and subsequent feelings of guilt. Those feelings of guilt, then prohibit the child (or adult from effectively making plans or setting goals in the future>
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
(6-12 years) The child's psychosocial task during this stage is to develop a sense of competence by beginning school and learning to do things on his own which instills a sense of pride and confidence. A child's peer group also beings to be of greater significance in this sage as well as contributes to a child's self esteem. If adults do not support the child in his initiative, then a sense of inferiority is likely to develop where the child doubts his own abilities, making it more difficult to reach his potential.
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
(12-18 years) The adolescent's task is to learn the roles that she or he will occupy as an adult while developing a sense of personal identity. Peer relationships help them to explore various identities. Success in this stage leads to fidelity where the adolescence feels comfortable with others who have varying values, while remaining true to his own identity. if the adolescent fails to develop a sense of identity, then he/she may feel role confusion or a weakened sense of self.
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
(18-40 years) The task during this stage is to being forming intimate relationships with other people. An individual develops comfortable relationships with a sense of commitment and care. Failure to develop intimacy can lead to isolation, loneliness, and a feeling of exclusion.
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
(40-65 years) The psychosocial task during this stage is to participate in activities that give the individual a sense of purpose such as a career, raising children, and creating positive changes that benefit others. If an adult does not feel this sense of purpose, he may then feel little connection to others and a sense of uselessness or rejection.
8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair
(65 - Death) The psychosocial task during this stage is for older adults to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment and accomplishment. This wisdom allows for them to face the end of life and accept successes and failures, aging, and loss. Those who see their lives as unproductive or with many regrets may develop a sense of despair and guilty that can lead to depression and hopelessness.