5th Grade Am. History Chap. 16

  1. Federal fort in Charleston South Carolina that was attacked by confederate troops to start the Civil War.
    Fort Sumter
  2. States between north and south - slave states but did n't join the Confederacy - Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri.
    Border States
  3. The idea that Great Britain would support the Confederacy because it needed the south's raw cotton.
    Cotton Diplomacy
  4. First major battle - a Confederate victory.  North learned they wouldn't win the war quickly.
    First Manassas (Bull Run)
  5. Lee hoped to secure a victory on Northern soil, Sept. 17, 1862.  AKA Battle of Sharpsburg - bloodiest single day (25,000 casualties) first union victory - Lee was turned back, but McClellan refused to follow up.
  6. Using ships to cut off enemy ports from trade, reinforcement supplies, etc.
  7. The Union army gained control over more of the South - made the conquest of Vicksburg possible.
  8. Commanded the Mississippi River - under siege by the North.  "Sealed the fate" of the South.  Trapped 30,000 confederate troops.
  9. The freeing of slaves.
  10. Escaped slaves
  11. Constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment.
    Habeus Corpus
  12. Burnside attacked, but too slowly - 12,600 casualties and had to retreat.
  13. Major victory for the South, but Jackson was killed by his own troops.
  14. A key battle in PA that finally turned the tide against the Confederates, July 1 - 3, 1863.  Pickett's charge sealed the loss for the South.
  15. Lincoln's speech praising the Union soldiers and re-committing to winning the Civil War.
    Gettysburg Address
  16. Union's attempt to capture Richmond.  Grant:  "I propose to fight it out on this line if it takes all summer."
    Wilderness Campaign
  17. Destroying civilian and economic resources, as well as military targets.
    "Total War"
  18. Where Lee surrendered to Grant, ending the Civil War.
    Appomattox Courthouse
  19. Commander of Fort Sumter in April 1861.
    Major Robert Anderson
  20. "There can be no neutrals in this war, only patriots or Traitors."
    Stephen Douglas' quote
  21. First woman to receive a license to practice medicine, organized a group to pressure Lincoln to form the U. S. Sanitary Commission. (Bandages, medicines, and food to Union Army camps and hospitals)
    Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
  22. His unit held fast at First Manassas which earned him the nickname.
    Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
  23. Lincoln's first choice for commanding general (who accepted) - far too cautious, was eventually dismissed.  Ran against Lincoln in 1864.
    George B. McClellan
  24. Veteran general, declined general.  Started in command of the Union Army.  Took risks, creative, daring.
    Robert E. Lee
  25. Bold, restless Union general.  Started in command of the Union's western armies, eventually the Army of the Potomac.
    Ulysses S. Grant
  26. Admiral, sailed up the Mississippi, captured Baton Rouge, and Natchez.
    David Farragut
  27. Consisted mostly of free African Americans led a historic charge on Ft. Wagner in July 1863.
    54th Massachusetts Infantry
  28. Northern democrats who opposed the war.
  29. Founded the American Red Cross - "angel of the battlefield"
    Clara Barton
  30. Lee's cavalry commander conspicuously "out of pocket" during the Battle of Gettysburg.
    J.E.B. "Jeb" Stuart
  31. Confederate general, advised Lee against attacking the Union forces at Gettysburg.
    James Longstreet
  32. Led our ill-fated charge of 15,000 men across open fields and up a hill into cannon and rifle fire.
    George Pickett
  33. General led the Army in the west to cut the South in Half.
    William Tecumseh Sherman
  34. Why was Lincoln's election as President a "breaking point" for the South.
    • -The South believed they had no power in swaying the country to their point of view because:
    • -Lincoln was elected without a single electoral vote from the south
    • -In fact Lincoln wasn't even listed on the ballot in some Southern States.
    • -They know his view of slavery and felt slavery was on the way out.
  35. What promise did Lincoln make in is first inaugural speech to ease the South's fears?
    He said he would not interfere with slavery in any territory or state that already practiced slavery.
  36. Compare North and South's population.
    • North - 22 million
    • South - 5.5 million
  37. Compare North and South's transportation.
    • North - Roads, canals, railroads, 22,000 miles of railroad tracks.
    • South - 9,000 miles of track
  38. Compare the North and South's economy.
    • North - Civil War stimulated growth in coal, iron, wheat, and wool.
    • South - Random printing money in states as they had to develop new currency which lead to financial chaos.
  39. Compare North and South's trade.
    • North - More developed banking and increased exports.
    • South - Blockade diminished trade.
  40. What were the 2 pieces of General Winfield Scott's strategy to defeat the South?
    • 1.  Destroy the South's economy with a naval blockade.
    • 2.  Gain control of the Mississippi River to divide the South.
  41. What were the South's key advantages in the Civil War?
    • -Strong military tradition with many brilliant officers.
    • - Farms provided food for the Confederate armies.
    • - They only had to defend themselves until the north got tired of fighting.
    • - It was a defensive war which is easier and they were on familiar ground.
    • - East and West rivers formed barriers to Northern Armies.
  42. Name 2 opinions about emancipation in the North, who held the opinions and for what reasons?
    • Against - Democrats - included many laborers, who feared free slaves coming North would take jobs by working for lower wages.
    • - Lincoln worried that he could use support for the war in border states.
    • For emancipation:  The war is pointless if it doesn't win freedom for the African Americans.  The country would stay divided
    • -Stantan believed the use of slave labor was benefiting the South.
  43. What did the Emancipation Proclamation say?
    "All persons held as slaves within any state or designated part of a state the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the U.S. shall be then, thence forward, and forever free."
  44. Was the Emancipation Proclamation effective?
    It was NOT effective - It freed people in rebellious states, but the Union didn't control those states, so it meant little.  It also didn't free slaves in the border states, for fear of their crossing over to the Confederacy.
  45. Was the Emancipation Proclamation legal?
    It was not legal, if the seceding states were still as Lincoln believed, part of the Union, since the Constitution made slavery legal and the president has no authority to change the constitution it was not legal.
Card Set
5th Grade Am. History Chap. 16
5th Grade Am. History Chap. 5