Explain the term cognitive dissonance in relation to changing attitude in sport and give e.g.
- Presented by Festinger
- states that a person holds two conflicting ideas that cause emotional discomfort (dissonance)
- Eg coach wanting to pursue youth policy but is worried he will lose games.
- To reduce feeling of dissonance, coach must come to terms with one of these ideas
Explain 3 factors which influence the effectiveness of persuasive communication and use e.g.
- First factor- the persuader, must be a significant other with high status. e.g. climbing instructor
- Second factor- the recipient, must be open to change. e.g. student understanding the task
- Third factor- the situation, attitudes are easier to change if there are others persuading too. e.g. other students encouraging
Explain the instinct theory of aggression
- Proposed by Freud.
- suggests that aggression is genetically inherited and everyone has what he called a 'death instinct', the purpose of which to seek aggression.
- Later, Lorenz suggested that aggressive energy is always present and builds up, and needs to be released.
Explain the social learning theory of aggression
- Presented by Bandura.
- suggests that aggression isn't a biologically based innate characteristic
- nurtured by watching and copying from role models
Describe the triadic model of attitudes
- cognitive component- known as the info component.
- affective component- feelings or emotional response towards an attitude object
- behavioural component- concerns how a person intends to behave towards an attitude object
Explain the frustration aggression hypothesis
- Proposed by Dollard
- frustration develops when goal directed behaviour is blocked.
- considered to be an interactionist theory because it is instinctive to fulfil the need to release frustration.
- frustration is environmentally generated and aggression is the result, whereas with instinct theory, aggression is the goal.