These are random with the respect to the needs of the organism and at low frequencies.
Mutations.
Gene level model of mutations
A->u a<-v
Mu or u is the
Forward mutation
V is the
Back mutation rate.
Mu is greater or lesser than v?
Greater
What is the classical view of mutations?
Change is dectected by an observable change in phenotype.
What is the formula for population equilibrium in a mutation?
P^ = v/v+u
Genetic disease genes in human populations are?
Mostly ressesive, occur at low frequency.
What is the equilibrium frequency of a harmful reserve allele formula?
Q^ = Square root u/s
What is s?
This is the selection coefficient. W= 1-s
This is non-random mating of genetic relatives in a population. Does not change allele frequencies over time. Will alter genotype frequencies. Continued from gen to gen will result in an excess of homozygotes and a deficiency of heterozygotes
Inbreeding
The alleles that comprise the genotype of an individual can be?
Identical by state (homozygous AA Aa or non-identical by state = Heterozygotes Aa
Autozygous?
Identical by descent IBD A1A1 or A2A2
Allozygous?
Not IBD the allele copies do not derive from a single gene copy. A1A2
This is the probability that an allele from an ancestor is IBD in an individual. Can be from 0-1 and assumes that no inbreeding occurred before that ancestor.
The Inbreeding coefficient.
Is mutation an important force in changing allele frequencies from gen to gen?
No
What is the population equilibrium equation?
P^=v/u+v
What is the equilibrium frequency equation of a harmful recessive allele?
Q^ = Square root of u/s
What is the recursion equation?
Ft = 1- (1/2)^t
Inbreeding effect of genotype frequencies in population. F(AA)
P2(1-F)+pF
Inbreeding effect of genotypes frequencies in population. F(aa)
Q2(1-F)+qF
Inbreeding effect of genotypes frequencies in populations. F(Aa)