Psychology 101

  1. What is Psychology?
    the study of human behavior
  2. What is the only method that enables researchers to draw cause and effect conclusions?
    experimental research
  3. In and experiment, the ________ manipulates _________ under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether there are changes in the 2nd ________ as a result.
    • researcher
    • a variable
    • variable
  4. What is a variable?
    a factor that is being manipulated
  5. Give one example of a variable that may affect people's physical health
    • -diet
    • -excercise
    • -genes
    • -living conditions
  6. What is the reason for having 2 variables in a simple experiment?
    to see if the change in one variable affect the other variable
  7. What are the 2 variables in a simple experiment?
    independent variable and dependent variable
  8. The independent variable is the ________ ________.
    hypothesized cause
  9. The dependent variable is the _______ ________.
    hypothesized effect
  10. What is the dependent variable?
    the outcome of what psychologists measure
  11. What are the two groups of subjects in a simple experiment?
    experimental group and the control group
  12. What happens in the experimental group?
    the group of subjects receive special treatment

    the new drug or whatever is new
  13. What happens in the control group?
    the group of subjects receive NO special treatment

    they get the old drug or the traidtional treatment
  14. What is the advantage of experimental research?
    you can draw cause and effect conclusions between variables
  15. What is correlation?
    the relationship between 2 variables
  16. A correlation exists when...
    2 variables are related to each other
  17. There are 2 types of correlation. What are they?
    positive correlation and negative correlation
  18. What is correlation coefficient?
    the strength of the relationship between 2 variables on a number line
  19. Which has the strongest correlation coefficient?
    a.) -.85
    b.) + .30
    c.) -.15
    d.) +.50
    a.) -.85

  20. With correlation can you determine a cause-effect relationship between the 2 variables?
  21. What is naturalistic observation?
    observing in real situations
  22. What is a reason to perform a case study?
    the circumstance is usually very rare or uncommon
  23. surveys are _________
  24. Explain Placebo
    When a patient asks for meds. You give them a placebo pill (sugar pill) without there knowledge, they think it is the meds and they think that its working but really it didnt. It was only a sugar pill.
  25. What are distortions in self-report data?
    data may not be accurate b/c the subject either forgot the info or they are lying
  26. What is 1 way to eliminate experimenter bias?
    the double blind procedure.... the experimenter and subject are unaware of all info involved
  27. What is a independent variable?
    what is being manipulated in the experiment
  28. What are the 3 descriptive methods?
    • Naturalistic observation
    • Case studies
    • Surveys
  29. What is a disadvantage of descriptive/correlational research?
    unable to draw cause-effect conclusion
  30. What is sampling bias?
    the relationship between "a sample" and "a population"
  31. What are the 5 steps in a scientific investigation?
    • 1. Form a hypothesis
    • 2. Choose a research method
    • 3. Collect data
    • 4. Analyze data
    • 5. Report your findings
  32. What are they 2 disadvantages of experimental research?
    • 1. often artificial
    • 2. cant answer some questions b/c of ethical reasons
  33. What is a positive correlation?
    a direct relationship between 2 variables

    they both go in same direction

    • study more...up
    • better grades...up
  34. What is a negative correlation?
    an inverse relationship between 2 variables

    they go in opposite directions

    • income... up
    • debt... down
  35. What are they advantages of naturalistic observation?
    can onserve in real settings
  36. What are the 2 advantages of descriptive/correlational research?
    • 1. simple
    • 2. can answer for questions that cant be answered for ethical reasons
  37. Experiementer bias occurs when...
    the experimenter has an opinion that affects the results
  38. What are extraneous variable?
    variables that can affect the dependent variable
  39. What are the basic elements in a simple experiement?
    • - 2 variables
    • - 2 groups of subjects
  40. How many functional classes of neurons are there?
    (Name them)
    • 3
    • Sensory neurons
    • Motor Neurons
    • Interneurons
  41. What are the basic parts of a neuron?
    • the cell body (soma)
    • the dendrites
    • the axon
    • the myelin sheath
    • the terminal buttons
  42. How does one neuron communicate with another neuron?
  43. Define: agonist
    a chemical that mimics the action of another
  44. Define: antagonist
    a chemical that works against the action of another chemical
  45. The somatic nervous system is made up of _______ nerve fibers and _______ nerve fibers.
    afferent efferent
  46. What does the CT scan do and what is it good for?
    takes multiple xrays to get a picture

    look at brain structure..... (looks for defects i.e. tumors)
  47. What enable psychologists to study what side of the brain the incoming information comes from in a split brain patient?
    they flash certaim stimulus at a certain angle, so the stimulus will go to only one side of the brain
  48. When a split-brain patient receives a stimulus in the left visual field (head facing forward), which side of the eye (one or both) does the image strike? Will they be able to describe it? Why or why not?
    both; no; the language and speech is located in the left hemisphere and the image was processed in the right hemisphere
  49. The L hemisphere of the brain handles verbal processing; i.e. language, speech, reading, writing. The R hemisphere usually handles non-verbal processing...spatial, musical, and visual recognition tasks; i.e. work by artisits, architects, musicians, etc.
  50. The cells in the nervous system fall into 2 major categories... What are they?
    • Glia
    • Neurons
  51. What 2 things do Glia do?
    • 1. form a connective network that holds brain neurons together
    • 2. they insulate one neuron from another
  52. Afferent nerve fibers are made up of ________ _________.
    sensory neurons (all the senses)
  53. Efferent nerves are made up of ________ ________.
    motor neurons (movement)
  54. The ________ ________ serves regenerative, grow-promoting, and energy-conserving functions.

    (calm, dry hands, no goosebumps)
    parasympathetic division
  55. What does an EEG do?
    moniters electrical activity of the brain
  56. What does a PET scan do and what is it good for?
    provides color coded maps of high activity in the brain.

    study the structure and activity
  57. The Autonomic nervous system controls the ________ ________ ________.
    internal muscle structures

    (heart rate, blood vessels, etc.)
  58. What are neurons?
    the basic building blocks of communication in the nervous system
  59. The ________ ________ mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies when one needs to exert tremendous energy.

    (fight or flight response)

    (nervous, sweaty hands, goosebumps, etc)
    sympathetic division
  60. Information flow in neural communication is one-way traffic....... Explain
    dendrites are at the recieveing end; terminal buttons are at the end, that delivers info to other neurons
  61. The somatic nervous system controls ________ ________ ________.
    volunatry muscle movements
  62. Define: Action potential
    a slight shift in neurons electrical charge that travels along an axon.

    follows the all or none law
  63. What is a neurotransmitter?
    when neural impulse reaches an axons terminal buttons, it triggers the release of chemical messangers
  64. Define: resting potential
    the electrical charge across the membrane of the inactive neuron
  65. What do interneurons do?
    they carry one set of neurons to another

    (they are in the middle)
  66. Name the 2 basic divisons of the nervous system
    • central nervous system
    • peripheral nervous system
  67. What is the connection between neurotransmitters and behavior?
    nerovus system relies on chemical couriers to communicate information between neurons
  68. What do sensory neurons do?
    • receive information from our senses (senses)
  69. What do motor neurons do?
    carry messages from the brain to the body's muscles (moving)
  70. Give an example of antagonist
    Schizophrenia > too much dopamine is released

    take an antagonist.... the antagonist will actually BLOCK some of the dopamine to take it back to normal.
  71. Give an example of agonist
    Depression > dont have enough of seratonin

    take an agonist... agonist acts like seratonin by adding some ( or so the brain thinks) and takes it back to normal.
  72. What is lesioning?
    surgically cutting a piece of the brain to see what stop working
  73. What is electrical stimulation?
    electrically stimulating the brain
  74. There are 3 types of brain imaging procedure. What are they?
    • CT Scan
    • PET Scan
    • MRI Scan
  75. What does an MRI Scan do and what is it good for?
    providing 3-D image of brain

    brain structure
  76. What happens after someone has a split-brain operation?
    there is NO communication between the two sides of the brain.
Card Set
Psychology 101
Ch 2, Ch 3, and Ch 4