What is the only method that enables researchers to draw cause and effect conclusions?
In and experiment, the ________ manipulates _________ under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether there are changes in the 2nd ________ as a result.
What is a variable?
a factor that is being manipulated
Give one example of a variable that may affect people's physical health
What is the reason for having 2 variables in a simple experiment?
to see if the change in one variable affect the other variable
What are the 2 variables in a simple experiment?
independent variable and dependent variable
The independent variable is the ________ ________.
The dependent variable is the _______ ________.
What is the dependent variable?
the outcome of what psychologists measure
What are the two groups of subjects in a simple experiment?
experimental group and the control group
What happens in the experimental group?
the group of subjects receive special treatment
the new drug or whatever is new
What happens in the control group?
the group of subjects receive NO special treatment
they get the old drug or the traidtional treatment
What is the advantage of experimental research?
you can draw cause and effect conclusions between variables
What is correlation?
the relationship between 2 variables
A correlation exists when...
2 variables are related to each other
There are 2 types of correlation. What are they?
positive correlation and negative correlation
What is correlation coefficient?
the strength of the relationship between 2 variables on a number line
Which has the strongest correlation coefficient? a.) -.85 b.) + .30 c.) -.15 d.) +.50
With correlation can you determine a cause-effect relationship between the 2 variables?
What is naturalistic observation?
observing in real situations
What is a reason to perform a case study?
the circumstance is usually very rare or uncommon
surveys are _________
When a patient asks for meds. You give them a placebo pill (sugar pill) without there knowledge, they think it is the meds and they think that its working but really it didnt. It was only a sugar pill.
What are distortions in self-report data?
data may not be accurate b/c the subject either forgot the info or they are lying
What is 1 way to eliminate experimenter bias?
the double blind procedure.... the experimenter and subject are unaware of all info involved
What is a independent variable?
what is being manipulated in the experiment
What are the 3 descriptive methods?
What is a disadvantage of descriptive/correlational research?
unable to draw cause-effect conclusion
What is sampling bias?
the relationship between "a sample" and "a population"
What are the 5 steps in a scientific investigation?
1. Form a hypothesis
2. Choose a research method
3. Collect data
4. Analyze data
5. Report your findings
What are they 2 disadvantages of experimental research?
1. often artificial
2. cant answer some questions b/c of ethical reasons
What is a positive correlation?
a direct relationship between 2 variables
they both go in same direction
What is a negative correlation?
an inverse relationship between 2 variables
they go in opposite directions
What are they advantages of naturalistic observation?
can onserve in real settings
What are the 2 advantages of descriptive/correlational research?
2. can answer for questions that cant be answered for ethical reasons
Experiementer bias occurs when...
the experimenter has an opinion that affects the results
What are extraneous variable?
variables that can affect the dependent variable
What are the basic elements in a simple experiement?
- 2 variables
- 2 groups of subjects
How many functional classes of neurons are there? (Name them)
What are the basic parts of a neuron?
the cell body (soma)
the myelin sheath
the terminal buttons
How does one neuron communicate with another neuron?
a chemical that mimics the action of another
a chemical that works against the action of another chemical
The somatic nervous system is made up of _______ nerve fibers and _______ nerve fibers.
What does the CT scan do and what is it good for?
takes multiple xrays to get a picture
look at brain structure..... (looks for defects i.e. tumors)
What enable psychologists to study what side of the brain the incoming information comes from in a split brain patient?
they flash certaim stimulus at a certain angle, so the stimulus will go to only one side of the brain
When a split-brain patient receives a stimulus in the left visual field (head facing forward), which side of the eye (one or both) does the image strike? Will they be able to describe it? Why or why not?
both; no; the language and speech is located in the left hemisphere and the image was processed in the right hemisphere
The L hemisphere of the brain handles verbal processing; i.e. language, speech, reading, writing. The R hemisphere usually handles non-verbal processing...spatial, musical, and visual recognition tasks; i.e. work by artisits, architects, musicians, etc.
The cells in the nervous system fall into 2 major categories... What are they?
What 2 things do Glia do?
1. form a connective network that holds brain neurons together
2. they insulate one neuron from another
Afferent nerve fibers are made up of ________ _________.
sensory neurons (all the senses)
Efferent nerves are made up of ________ ________.
motor neurons (movement)
The ________ ________ serves regenerative, grow-promoting, and energy-conserving functions.
(calm, dry hands, no goosebumps)
What does an EEG do?
moniters electrical activity of the brain
What does a PET scan do and what is it good for?
provides color coded maps of high activity in the brain.
study the structure and activity
The Autonomic nervous system controls the ________ ________ ________.
internal muscle structures
(heart rate, blood vessels, etc.)
What are neurons?
the basic building blocks of communication in the nervous system
The ________ ________ mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies when one needs to exert tremendous energy.
(fight or flight response)
(nervous, sweaty hands, goosebumps, etc)
Information flow in neural communication is one-way traffic....... Explain
dendrites are at the recieveing end; terminal buttons are at the end, that delivers info to other neurons
The somatic nervous system controls ________ ________ ________.
volunatry muscle movements
Define: Action potential
a slight shift in neurons electrical charge that travels along an axon.
follows the all or none law
What is a neurotransmitter?
when neural impulse reaches an axons terminal buttons, it triggers the release of chemical messangers
Define: resting potential
the electrical charge across the membrane of the inactive neuron
What do interneurons do?
they carry one set of neurons to another
(they are in the middle)
Name the 2 basic divisons of the nervous system
central nervous system
peripheral nervous system
What is the connection between neurotransmitters and behavior?
nerovus system relies on chemical couriers to communicate information between neurons
What do sensory neurons do?
receive information from our senses (senses)
What do motor neurons do?
carry messages from the brain to the body's muscles (moving)
Give an example of antagonist
Schizophrenia > too much dopamine is released
take an antagonist.... the antagonist will actually BLOCK some of the dopamine to take it back to normal.
Give an example of agonist
Depression > dont have enough of seratonin
take an agonist... agonist acts like seratonin by adding some ( or so the brain thinks) and takes it back to normal.
What is lesioning?
surgically cutting a piece of the brain to see what stop working
What is electrical stimulation?
electrically stimulating the brain
There are 3 types of brain imaging procedure. What are they?
What does an MRI Scan do and what is it good for?
providing 3-D image of brain
What happens after someone has a split-brain operation?
there is NO communication between the two sides of the brain.