1. Ablation
    removal of a structure
  2. Anterior commissure
    set of axons connecting the two cerebral hemispheres; smaller than the corpus callosum
  3. Autonomic nervous system
    set of neurons that regulates functioning of the internal organs
  4. Basal ganglia
    set of subcortical forebrain structures lateral to the hypothalamus, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus
  5. Bell-Magendie law
    observation that the dorsal roots of the spinal cord carry sensory information and that the ventral roots carry motor information toward the muscles and glands
  6. Binding problem
    question of how the visual, auditory, and other areas of the brain influence one another to produce a combined perception of a single object
  7. Brainstem
    hindbrain, midbrain, and posterior central structures of the forebrain
  8. Central canal
    fluid-filled channel in the center of the spinal cord
  9. Central nervous system (CNS)
    brain and spinal cord
  10. Central sulcus
    large groove in the surface of the primate cerebral cortex, separating frontal from parietal cortex
  11. Cerebellum
    highly convoluted structure in the hindbrain
  12. Cerebral cortex
    outer covering of the cerebellum
  13. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    liquid similar to blood serum, found in the ventricles of the brain and in the central canal of the spinal cord
  14. Computerized axial tomography (CT or CAT scan)
    method of visualizing a living brain by injecting a dye into the blood and then passing x-rays through the head and recording them by detectors on the other side
  15. Corpus callosum
    large set of axons that connects the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
  16. Cranial nerves
    part of a set of nerves controlling sensory and motor information of the head, connecting to nuclei in the medulla, pons, midbrain, or forebrain
  17. Delayed-response task
    assignment in which an animal must respond on the basis of a signal that it remembers but that is no longer present
  18. Dorsal
    located toward the back, away from the ventral (stomach) side
  19. Dorsal root ganglia
    set of sensory neuron somata on the dorsal side of the spinal cord
  20. Electroencephalograph (EEG)
    device that measures the brain's electrical activity through electrodes on the scalp
  21. Evoked potentials or evoked responses
    electrical activity of the brain in response to a stimulus, as recorded from the scalp
  22. Forebrain
    most anterior part of the brain, including the cerebral cortex and other structures
  23. Frontal lobe
    section of cerebral cortex extending from the central sulcus to the anterior limit of the brain, containing the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex
  24. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
    modified version of MRI that measures energies released by hemoglobin molecules in an MRI scan and then determines the brain areas receiving the greatest supply of blood and oxygen
  25. Gene-knockout approach
    use of biochemical methods to direct a mutation to a particular gene that is important for certain types of cells, transmitters, or receptors
  26. Gray matter
    areas of the nervous system with a high density of cell bodies and dendrites, with few myelinated axons
  27. Hindbrain
    most posterior part of the brain, including the medulla, pons, and cerebellum
  28. Hippocampus
    large forebrain structure between the thalamus and cortex
  29. Hypothalamus
    forebrain structure near the base of the brain just ventral to the thalamus
  30. Inferior colliculus
    swelling on each side of the tectum in the midbrain
  31. Kl├╝ver-Bucy syndrome
    condition in which monkeys with damaged temporal lobes fail to display normal fears and anxieties
  32. Lamina (pl.: laminae)
    layer of cell bodies parallel to the surface of the cortex and separated from other laminae by layers of fibers
  33. Lesion
    damage to a structure
  34. Limbic system
    set of forebrain areas traditionally regarded as critical for emotion, which form a border around the brainstem, including the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus of the cerebral cortex, and several other smaller structures
  35. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    method of imaging a living brain by using a magnetic field and a radio frequency field to make atoms with odd atomic weights all rotate in the same direction and then removing those fields and measuring the energy that the atoms release
  36. Magnetoencephalograph (MEG)
    device that measures the faint magnetic fields generated by the brain's activity
  37. Medulla
    hindbrain structure located just above the spinal cord; the medulla could be regarded as an enlarged, elaborated extension of the spinal cord
  38. Meninges
    membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
  39. Midbrain
    middle part of the brain, including superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, tectum, and tegmentum
  40. Neuroanatomy
    anatomy of the nervous system
  41. Nucleus basalis
    area on the dorsal surface of the forebrain; a major source of axons that release acetylcholine to widespread areas in the cerebral cortex
  42. Occipital lobe
    posterior (caudal) section of the cerebral cortex
  43. Parasympathetic nervous system
    system of nerves that facilitate vegetative, nonemergency responses by the body's organs
  44. Parietal lobe
    section of the cerebral cortex between the occipital lobe and the central sulcus
  45. Peripheral nervous system
    nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
  46. Phrenology
    pseudoscience that claimed a relationship between skull anatomy and behavioral capacities
  47. Pituitary gland
    endocrine gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus
  48. Pons
    hindbrain structure, anterior and ventral to the medulla
  49. Positron-emission tomography (PET)
    method of mapping activity in a living brain by recording the emission of radioactivity from injected chemicals
  50. Postcentral gyrus
    gyrus of the cerebral cortex just posterior to the central gyrus; a primary projection site for touch and other body sensations
  51. Prefrontal cortex
    anterior portion of the frontal lobe of the cortex, which responds mostly to the sensory stimuli that signal the need for a movement
  52. Prefrontal lobotomy
    surgical disconnection of the prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain
  53. Primate
    order of mammals that includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and others
  54. Raphe system
    group of neurons in the pons and medulla whose axons extend throughout much of the forebrain
  55. Reticular formation
    network of neurons in the medulla and other parts of the brainstem; the descending portion controls motor areas of the spinal cord; the ascending portion selectively increases arousal and attention in various forebrain areas
  56. Sham lesion
    control procedure for an experiment, in which an investigator inserts an electrode into a brain but does not pass a current
  57. Somatic nervous system
    nerves that convey messages from the sense organs to the CNS and from the CNS to muscles and glands
  58. Spinal cord
    part of the CNS found within the spinal column; it communicates with the sense organs and muscles below the level of the head
  59. Stereotaxic instrument
    device for the precise placement of electrodes in the head
  60. Substantia nigra
    midbrain area that gives rise to a dopamine-containing pathway
  61. Superior colliculus
    swelling on either side of the tectum, responsible for certain aspects of vision, including eye movements
  62. Sympathetic nervous system
    network of nerves that prepare the body's organs for vigorous activity
  63. Tectum
    roof of the midbrain
  64. Tegmentum
    intermediate level of the midbrain
  65. Temporal lobe
    lateral portion of each hemisphere, near the temples
  66. Thalamus
    structure in the center of the forebrain
  67. Transcranial magnetic stimulation
    application of an intense magnetic field to a portion of the scalp to influence the neurons below the magnet
  68. Ventral
    located toward the stomach, away from the back (dorsal) side
  69. Ventricle
    any of the four fluid-filled cavities in the brain
  70. White matter
    area of the nervous system consisting mostly of myelinated axons
Card Set
Ch4: Anatomy of the Nervous System