In the first period, during the 1940s, Rogers developed what was known as _________________ which provided a powerful and revolutionary alternative to the directive and interpretive approaches to therapy then being practiced. Rogers’s theory emphasized the counselor’s creation of a permissive climate.
In the second period, during the 1950s, Rogers renamed his approach ________________, which reflected his emphasis on the client rather than on nondirective methods. In addition, he started the Counseling Center at the University of Chicago. This period was characterized by a shift from clarification of feelings to a focus on the phenomenological world of the client. Rogers assumed that the best vantage point for understanding how people behave was from their own internal frame of reference. He focused more explicitly on the actualizing tendency as the basic motivational force that leads to client change.
The third period, which began in the late 1950s and extended into the 1970s, addressed _______1______ . Rogers set forth a hypothesis that resulted in three decades of research. He was interested in how people best progress in psychotherapy, and he studied the qualities of the client–therapist relationship as a catalyst leading to personality change.On the basis of this research, the approach was further refined and expanded. For example, client-centered philosophy was applied to education and was called ________2_______.
- 1.the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapy.
- 2. student-centered teaching
The fourth phase, during the 1980s and the 1990s, was marked by _____1___________ . Because of Rogers’s ever-widening scope of influence, including his interest in how people obtain, possess, share, or surrender power and control over others and themselves, his theory became known as the ________2_______. This shift in terms reflected the broadening application of the approach.
- 1. considerable expansion to education, couples and families, industry, groups, conflict resolution, politics, and the search for world peace
- 2.person-centered approach.
________1___________ emerged as a person-centered “approach informed by understanding the role of emotion in human functioning and psychotherapeutic change” Leslie Greenberg, a prominent figure in the development of this integrative approach, states that ____2______________.
1. Emotion-focused therapy (EFT)
2. EFT is designed to help clients increase their awareness of their emotions and make productive use of them
Emotion focused therapy strategies focus on what two major tasks?
- (1) help clients with too little emotion access their emotions, and
- (2) help clients who experience too much emotion contain their emotions
What is a main goal of EFT - emotional focused therapy?
to help individuals access and process emotions to construct new ways of being.
Many contemporary existential therapists refer to themselves as existential-humanistic practitioners. What does this indicate?
that their roots are in existential philosophy, but that they have incorporated many aspects of North American humanistic psychotherapies.
What are the three attributes that Rogers think a therapist needs, to create a growth-promoting climate in which individuals can move forward and become what they are capable of becoming?According to Rogers, if therapists communicate these attitudes, those being helped will become less defensive and more open to themselves and their world, and they will behave in prosocial and constructive ways. (pg 170)
- (1) congruence (genuineness, or realness),
- (2) unconditional positive regard (acceptance and caring),
- (3) accurate empathic understanding (an ability to deeply grasp the subjective world of another person).
What is the person centered therapy view of human nature?
1. At their core, humans are trustworthy and positive
2. Humans are capable of making changes and living productive, effective lives.
3.Humans innately gravitate towards self-actualization
4. Given the right growth-fostering conditions, individuals strive to move forward and fulfill their creative nature
Person centered therapy challenges-
-Assumption that “the counselor knows best”
- Validity of advice, suggestion, persuasion, teaching, diagnosis, and interpretation
-Belief that clients cannot resolve their own problems without help
-Focus on problems over persons
Person centered therapy Emphasizes -
Personal characteristic of the therapist
Quality of the therapeutic relationship
Counselor’s creation of a “growth- promoting” climate
Person’s capacity for self-directed growth if involved in a therapeutic relationship
Three therapist attributes create growth-promoting climate:
-Congruence: Genuineness or realness- integrity
- Unconditional positive regard: Acceptance and caring
- Accurate empathic Understanding : The ability to deeply grasp the subjective world of another person
Six conditions that are necessary and sufficient for personality changes to occur:
- 1. Two people are in psychological contact
- 2. The client, is experiencing incongruence
3. The therapist, is congruent and integrated in the relationship
4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard or real caring for the client
5.The therapist experiences empathy for the client’s internal frame of reference and endeavors to communicate this to the client
6. The communication to the client is, to a minimal degree, achieved.
List Abraham Maslow's self actualizers.
-Accurately perceive reality
-Judge honestly and quickly spot the fake and dishonest
-Are comfortable with life
-Accept themselves, others, and nature
Have good humor and tolerance
Believe they have a mission to accomplish
Feel a need to devote their life to some larger good
Do not depend on external authority or other people
Are inner-driven, autonomous, and independent
Feel a strong fellowship with all of humanity
Have relationship characterized by deep and loving bonds
Can laugh at themselves
Have sense of humor that never involve hostility or criticism
Frequently experience peak experiences that include: deep meaning, insight, and harmony with the universe