the non lipid soluble molecule attaches itself to a carrier molecule in the membrane.
active transport mechanism
similar to a passive mechanism except that it can work against normal diffusion by concentrating a substance on one side of a membrane.
all of the chemical processes in the body related to the production and utilization of energy (aka biotransformation)
complex chemical compounds are broken down into similar ones (releases energy)
simple chemical compounds are built up into more complex one (requires energy)
the most active tissues in metabolism
drug molecules cross the membranes of the cells in the GI tract, they move into a blood circulation system that goes directly to the liver before getting into the blood that supplies the body and brain , to be further metabolized in the liver
why plasma of brain concentrations of drugs administered in this fashion are generally lower than those of drugs administered through other routes
by far the organ most responsible for metabolizing drugs is the
hepatic microsomal enzyme system
a large complex of enzymes that exists within the membranes of the primary liver cells.
drug metabolizing enzymes
refers to a decreased effectiveness of a drug with repeated administration
levels of a given enzyme can be increased by previous exposure to a specific drug which uses that enzyme or some other drug that uses that enzyme or system
increased enzyme activity
is a drug which conpetes with acetaldehyde for this enzyme and this meand that acetaldehyde levels increase in the body because the enzyme is not readily available to metabolize it.
Renal or Kidney excretion
of drugs (primarily their metabolites) is the primary way in which they are removed from the body
to a great extent what the metabolites depend oon is the rate of the excretion.
the organ connected to the fetus that attaches to the wall of the uterus.
longterm behavioral effects
direct toxic effects