Menstrual Cycle Physiology

  1. Follicular phase is also known as ____ phase, which is between days ______
    • Proliferative
    • Days 0-14
  2. Luteal phase is also known as _____ phase, which is between days _____
    • Secretory
    • Days 14-28
  3. T/F: endometrium in the uterus builds up during the luteal phase and breaks down after menses during the follicular phase of the next cycle
    False; endometrium builds up during the follicular phase, and then develop in the luteal phase and breaks down in menses of the next cycle (days 0-4) of the next cycle
  4. Body temperature increases during _____ phase
    After ovulation during the secretory phase
  5. T/F: primordial follicle develops to primary follicle
  6. In the follicular phase, 6-12 primary follicles shows accelerated growth and develop into _____ follicles
  7. Which cells form the capsule of the graafian follicles?
    Theca cells becomes vascular connective tissues that form the capsule of the follicle
  8. By the end of the follicular phase, which follicle becomes the dominant follicle?
    All but one of the Graffian follicles become atretic and only one survive becomes dominant follicle
  9. Expulsion of ____ from the dominant follicle occurs in day ____
    • Ovum
    • 14
  10. Primoridal follicles of an _____ surrounded by a single layer of flattened granulosa cells. Primordial follicles can grow into ____ follicles, which contain an ____ surrounded by a layer of cuboidal granulosa cells.
    • Oocyte
    • Primary
    • Oocyte
  11. Uterine glands grow, mucus secretion increase, stromal cells proliferate and new blood vessels vascularize the endometrium during the ____ phase
  12. T/F: ovum takes three to four days after ovulation to travel to the uterus through the fallopian tubes
  13. The endometrium increase secretion and becomes more vascularized, and the lining proliferates a little more during ____ phase
    Luteal phase
  14. During menses, uterine contraction occurs in response to what?
    Mass of tissues, blood, and the release of prostaglandins. Uterine contents are expelled
  15. T/F: during menses, the uterus is very porn to infections as typically 40ml of blood and 35 ml of serous fluid comes out
    False; leukocytes are released in the 35 ml of serous fluid/ 40 ml of blood of uterine contents protecting the uterus from infection.
  16. When do FSH and LH get released during menstrual cycle? Which one peaks first?
    • Early in the follicular phase
    • FSH level is somewhat higher and peaks earlier than the level of LH
  17. T/F: early growth of follicles is due to presence of FSH in early follicular phase
    True; FSH is higher and peaks earlier than LH during early follicular phase
  18. Estradiol produced by _____ increases and makes the granulosa cells ______ to FSH and LH by ______ amount of receptors
    • FSH and LH
    • More sensitive
    • Increasing
  19. The dominant hormone during luteal phase is ______
  20. What is the effect of progesterone in the secretory/luteal phase?
    Increase vascularity of endometrium
  21. T/F: estradiol level increases just after ovulation and gradually increase again during the luteal phase
    False; estradiol surges right before ovulation and lowers just after ovulation, but they will increase again during the luteal phase
  22. What develops during the luteal phase and starts synthesizing estradiol and progesterone?
    Corpus luteum
  23. What does the corpus luteum synthesize and when does it occur?
    • It synthesizes estradiol and progesterone
    • Occurs during luteal phase
  24. T/F: The luteinizing hormone stimulates the corpus luteum
    True; its too straight forward isn’t it
  25. What happens to the corpus luteum if no fertilization occurs at the end of the luteal phase?
    corpus luteum will regress
  26. What can signal the corpus luteum to remain and not regress?
    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), from the placenta, aka when you’re preggo
  27. T/F: menses marks the end of the menstrual cycle
    False; it is actually the beginning of the next cycle, days 0-4
  28. T/F: progesterone levels are so high in the secretory phase that some of the progesterone enters the blood before it can be converted to estrogen
  29. T/F: Liver rapidly breaks down estrogens and progesterone because they are bound to albumin and specialized binding proteins in the blood
    True; this is why synthetic hormones are used in birth control because the liver won’t break down synthetic as quickly
  30. FSH and LH have receptors that works through _______ system
    cAMP second messenger
  31. Estradiol has _____ effects in the ovary and more ____ effects on the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus
    • Local
    • Distant
  32. Estradiol level at above ______ picogram per mL starts to have a positive effect on GnRH, LH, and FSH
  33. Inhibin and Activin are both produced by _____ cells and have effect on _____ secretion from the anterior pituitary
    • Granulosa
    • FSH
  34. T/F: the LH surge is followed by estradiol surge just before ovulation
    False; estradiol surge preceded the LH surge; this surge in estradiol is to change the normally negative feedback on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to a positive feedback.
  35. T/F: LH makes granulosa and theca cells more progesterone-secreting just before ovulation
  36. After ovulation, granulosa and theca cells becomes _____ cells
  37. Involution of the corpus luteum typically occurs ____ days after ovulation without fertilization. Typically this is associated with low levels of ______
    • 12
    • Low FSH and LH
  38. Estrogen makes the cilia in the ______ beat towards the _____.
    • Fallopian tube
    • Uterus
  39. Which hormones decreases frequency and intensity of uterine contractions to avoid ovum expulsion?
  40. Which hormone promotes secretion from fallopian tube lining to provide nutrition for the ovum?
  41. The window for intercourse is ____ before ovulation to a _____ after ovulation
    • 4-5 days before
    • Few hours after
  42. Birth control pill containing estrogen or progesterone is designed to affect which part of the cycle?
    • First half of the cycle by inhibiting pre-ovulatory surge
    • Stops LH surge, keep estrogen level high
  43. Why is there no clotting in menstruation?
    Necrotic endometrial tissue release fibrinolysin which inhibits clotting
  44. T/F: presence of clotting is normal during menstruation
    False; clotting does not usually occur due to fibrinolysin release by the necrotic endometrial tissue, so if there is clotting it is indicative of disease
Card Set
Menstrual Cycle Physiology
Endo Exam 2