Anatomy 1 - All thorax

  1. what are the 2 major parts of a typical vertebra
    body and arch
  2. what is an intervertebral foramen
    opening betweenadjacent vertebrae allowing passage of the spinla n
  3. how do ribs articulate with the thoracic vertebrae
    head articulartes w/ bodies of contiguous vertebrae & the tubercule articulates w/ the transvers process of same numberes
  4. what is the name of the space between 2 adhacent ribs
    intercostal space
  5. what do the costal cartilages of the last sternal and all asternal ribs form
    costal arch
  6. what are the first and last sternebrae
    manubrium & xiphoid, respectively
  7. what caps the xiphoid process
    Xiphoid arch
  8. what thoracic vertebra usually has the most vertically oriented spine
    anticlinal vertbra, usually T11 in dog
  9. how is inspiration accomplished
    increased size of thorax decreases pressure = air rushes in
  10. what is the main respiratory muscle
  11. name 2 muscles exteneding between adjacent ribs
    external and internal intercostal m
  12. what is the opening into the thorax
    thoracic inlet
  13. what forms the thoracic inlet
    • 1st thoracic vertebra
    • right & left 1st ribs
    • sternum
  14. what palpable structure is formed by the costal cartilages of the false ribs
    costal arch
  15. what divides the thorax into 2 spaces
  16. where is the heart located in the thoracic cavity
    (2nd) 3rd to (5th) 6th intercostal space (ICS) in the bottom 2/3rds of the cavity
  17. which side of the aorta does the thoracic esophagus normally cross
    right side of the aortic arch
  18. what covers the trachea in the cranial neck
    only strap muscles (sternohyoideus & sternothyroideus m)
  19. what part of the trachea splits inot right and left primary bronchi
    tracheal bifurcation
  20. what separates lobes of the lungs
    interlobar fissures
  21. what is the opening between the lobes of the lung where the surgeon's pericarium comes in contact with the thoracic wall
    cardial notch
  22. what so radiologists call pulmonary trunk
    "main pulmonary artery/segment" MPA
  23. what is the mediastinum
    space or wall (makes up parietal work for the pleura) separating the thoracic cavity inot 2 cavities & separating the 2 plueral cavities
  24. what are the divisions of the mediastinum
    cranial, middle(heart) and caudal (all divided into dorsal and ventral parts)
  25. list the parts of the pericardium
    fibrous pericardium, serous pericardium (visceral and parietal parts)
  26. what is located in the pericardial cavity
    "scant amount" of serous fluid only
  27. which side of the heart is part of the pulmonary circulation
    right: pulmonary side
  28. the left side of the heart is part of what circulation and why
    systemic circulation, pumps blood to body
  29. what side of the heart is the right ventricle on? left ventricle?
    • Right: cranial (right, cranial and left sides)
    • Left: caudal
  30. what is the vestigial, fetal connection from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta
    ligament arteriosum
  31. what is the most caudal part of the heart? is it right or left
    • Apex
    • Left
  32. what is the adult remnant of the fetal foramen ovale
    fossa ovale
  33. what separates the atria
    interatrial septum
  34. name the wall separating the 2 ventricles
    interventricular (IV) septum
  35. which ventricle has a thinner wall and why
    right, less strength need to reach the lungs
  36. name the 3 layers of the heart
    endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium
  37. what are the valves of the heart
    • right and left atrioventricular (AV)
    • aortic and pulmonic valves (semilunar valves)
  38. what is the function of the AV valves
    prevent back flow into the atria during ventricular contraction
  39. what is the function of the semilunar valves
    prevent return to heart during diastole
  40. what abonormal sounds are caused by blood flow tuberlence in the heart
  41. what are the 3 parts of the conduction system of the heart
    • sinoartial node(pacemaker)
    • atrioventricular node(AV)
    • atrioventricular bundle branches
  42. what is the term for ventricular contraction and relaxation
    ventricular systole, diastole
  43. how do diastole and systole relate to the heart sounds
    • systole: between 1st and 2nd sounds
    • diastole: between 2nd and 1st heart sounds
  44. what do the 1st and 2nd hearts sounds sounds like and roughly represent
    • 1st: lub, closure of AV valves (start of systole)
    • 2nd: dub, closure of semilunar vavle (diastole)
  45. what causes closure and opening of the AV and semilunar valves
    • opening AV: diastole
    • semilunar: systole
    • closure AV: systole
    • Semilunar: diastole
  46. what does the recoil of the elastic aorta at the end of systole cause
    pushes blood to body and back towards the heart, closing aortic valve and filling the coronary arteries
  47. how is the esophagus normally related to the arch of the aorta
    to the right of the arch of aorta
  48. what arteries travel up the neck to supply the head and face
    common carotid a
  49. what artery travels on the floor of the thorax
    internal thoracic a
  50. what vessels and nerves travel in the intercostal spaces caudal to the ribs
    intercostal a, v, n,
  51. what 3 fetal structures bypass the lungs and liver
    ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, and foramen ovale
  52. where does the ductus arteriosus shunt most of the blood in the right ventricle from the pulmonary to the systemic circulation
    from the pulmonary trunk and aorta
  53. what adult is remnant of the following structure
    ductus arteriosus
    ligament arteriosum
  54. what adult is remnant of the following structure
    foramen ovale
    oval fossa or fossa ovale
  55. what adult is remnant of the following structure
    unbilical arteries
    round ligaments if urinary bladder
  56. what adult is remnant of the following structure
    umbilical vein
    round ligament of liver
  57. what is the large lymphatic channel draining the caudal animal
    thoracic duct (from abdomin, pelvis & pelvic limb)
  58. what lymph nodes are near the bifurcation of the trachea
    tracheobrachial lymph nodes
  59. what is the lymphatic structure in the cranial mediastinum
    cranial mediastinal lymph node
  60. what is the large nerve crossing the heart to the daiphragm
    phrenic n
  61. what is the branch of the vagus that returns to the neck
    • recurrent laryngeal n
    • Lt: around the arch of the aorta
    • Rt: round right subclavian artery
  62. what does the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervate
    which is clinically important in dogs and horses with laryngeal paralysis
    • most laryngeal skeletal muscles
    • cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m
  63. what supplies cutaneous innervation to the top of the thoracic and abdominal walls
    both dorsal and ventral branches of the spinal n in the thoracic and lumbar region
  64. what is the parasympathetic innervation to the thorax
    vagus nerve
  65. what are the 2 series of connected gagnlia lying on either side of the bodies of the thoracolumbar vertebrae and longus colli muscle
    sympathetic trunk
  66. which way do the motor fibers travel in the vagosympathetic trunk
    • sympathetic toward the head
    • vagus away from the head
  67. what is a serosa (serous membrane)
    a thin continuous membrane lining a closed cavity and covering the cavity's organs
  68. what are the serous membranse of the pericardial cavity, thorax, abdomen, and spermatic cord called respectively
    • pericardial: pericardium
    • thorax: pleura
    • abdomen:peritoneum
    • spermatic cord: vaginal tunic
  69. what serosa covers walls of a cavity
    parietal serosa
  70. what serosa covers an organ
    visceral serousa
  71. what connects parietal and visceral with visercal serosa
    connecting serosa
  72. what is the serosa lining the thoracic cavity
  73. are the lungs located in the pleural cavities
    no just scant amount of serous fluid
  74. what is the line of pleural cavities
    point costal pleura reflects onto diaphragm
  75. what is the plural cupula
    cranial pleural sac exteneding out through the thoracic inlet
  76. how should VD/DV and lateral films be placed on veiwing screen
    • DV/VD right side to your left in both
    • lateral - cranial side to the left
  77. what does a R or L marker on different film views indicate
    lateral trunk (thorax or abdomen)
    right or left lateral = side on cassette
  78. what does a R or L marker on different film views indicate
    DV or VD films
    side of animal
  79. what does a R or L marker on different film views indicate
    one limb in film
    limb in film
  80. how are thoracic filme evaluated for rotation
    • lateral: costochondral junctions and shoulder joints - same level
    • VD/DV:sternum and spinal column superimposed
  81. what structure is used to tell an expiratory from an inspiratory film
    position of diaphragm
  82. once you have picked a method to evaluate films, what should you do each time you evaluate a film
    always read in the same manner (every time)
  83. what is the cranial limit of the abdomen
  84. can you visualize the sides of the diaphragm
    • cranial yes as contrasted air (lungs)
    • caudal no against water densities (liver and stomach)
  85. what is the junction between the 2 cura
    intercrural cleft
  86. what mediastinal structure are normally seen in the lateral view
    trachea, aorta, heart in the pericardium, caudal vena cava
  87. what mediastinal structures can be seen in the VD view
    heart in pericardium, caudal vena cava, left edge of the descending aorta
  88. is the esophagus usually visible on radiographs? when is it visible
    no, only if it contains swallowed air or contrast material
  89. what is the thick dark line in lateral radiograph of the cranial mediastinum
  90. what is the dark oval over the heart base in a lateral radiograph
    tachea bifurcateion "carina"
  91. the trachea normally makes a ____ angle to the vertebral column in a lateral view
    15 degree
  92. name a dilation of caudal cervical and thoracic esophagus
  93. which way does megaesophagus displace the trachea and heart
  94. pulmonary edema results in increased rediographic
  95. where are "DOnuts"
    round end-on views of bronchi with perivascular cuffing in peribronchiolar pattern
  96. what are the sagittal sections of bronchi with perivascular cuffing called in a peribronchiolar pattern
    "tram lines"
  97. why is the air in the bronchi so prominent in an alveolar pattern
    water replaces air in interstitium and contrast air in bronchi
  98. why do the vessels disappear in an alveolar pattern
    surrounding lung filled with fluid
  99. what is the visucalization of the air in bronchi in an alveolar pattern called
    air bronchogram
  100. what else will pleural effusion do to a radiograph besides showing borders and fissures of the lungs
    loss of detail obscuring the heart and diaphragm
  101. what is the main radiographic sign of pleural effusion
    separation of the lungs and the body wall allowing visualization of the lung borders and fissure lines
  102. left atrial enlargment will do what to the caudal bronchi in a lateral view
    separate right and left caudal bronchi by elevating left one
  103. what causes "cowboy legs" to the principal bronchi
    enlargement of left atrium or tracheobronchial lymph nodes
  104. to which lung lobe will a light, inhaled foreign body (grass awn) which moves by air flow and not gravity, tend to go
    right caudal lobe - straight shot
  105. which is the most common lung lobe site for aspiration pneumonia
    what is the secon most common
    • right middle lung lobe (most dependent)
    • cranial right lung lobe
  106. when is the shape of the mediastinum clincally important
    pleural effusions
  107. of what does the chest wall consist
    sternum, ribs, costal cartilages, and intercostal muscles
  108. what theoretically allows a unilateral pneumothorax or pyothorax to become bilateral
    fenestration (holes) in the mediastinum, common in the dog
  109. where is thoracocentesis done
    middle of the 7-8 intercostal space (2-3 back from point of elbow) just dorsal to the costochondral junction (craniodorsal to line of pleural reflection
  110. what is pleurocentesis/ thorascocentesis
    surgical puncture of the chest wall for drainage of fluid
  111. what type of lung pattern would you expect to see in pulmonic stenosis
    normal to hypovacular
  112. what type of murmur will pulmonary stenosis give? why?
    • systolic
    • pumping through constriction causes turbulence
  113. early in patent ductus arteriosus, which direction is the shunt during systole
    during diastole
    • to right in both (aorta to pulmonary trunk)
    • aorta has higher presure
  114. what is called if the ductus arteriosus doesn't close after birth
    patent ductus arteriosus PDA
  115. where does the ductus arteriosus join the aorta in relationship to the brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian arteries
    past them
  116. what structures constrict the esophagus in a persisten right aortic arch (PRAA)
    aorta to right of the esophagus instead of the left = aorta, ligament arteriosum, and the base of the heart forming a rign around the esophagus
  117. what does PRAA stand for
    persisten right aortic arch
  118. what are the clinical significance of the coronary arteries in domestic species
    little clinical signifcance as few species (turkeys) get coronary a. disease
  119. describe dilatative or congestive cardiomyopathy
    a rare enlarged dilated heart causing congestive heart failure in cats and dogs
  120. describe hypertrophy cardiomyopathy, tn which species is it most frequent
    enlarged, thickened heart - cats
  121. what is inflammation of the pericardium
  122. wat are 3 common sites for foreign bodies to lodge in the esophagus due to constriction of surrounding structures
    • cranial to thoracic inlet
    • cranial to base of heart
    • cranial to diaphragm
  123. which side of the aorta does the thoracic esophagus normally cross
    right side of the aortic arch
  124. when is the heart bigger than normal? when is it smaller than normal
    • big> 3 1/2
    • small< 2 1/2
    • ICS - rule of thumb
  125. what must be blocked to anesthetize the paralumbar fossa of the large animal's flank
    both dorsal and ventral branches must be blocked
  126. what is the contraction of cutaneous trunic muscle in response to a pin prick of trunk
    panniculus (cutaneous trunci) response
  127. when closing an intercostal approach to the thorax with sutures around the ribs, what should be avoided
    intercostal vessels on caudal ribs
  128. where will a severed intercostal artery bleed and why
    both ends of cut, originate from the aorta dn the internal thoracic a
  129. what is air in the thorax called
  130. what is pneumonia
    inflammation of the lungs with condolidation
  131. what is hyalin membrane disease
    parturition before the lungs mature with insufficient surfactant produced
  132. what nerves must be avoided in thoracic surgery
    • vagus, recurrent laryngeal
    • phrenic nerves
  133. what results from rupture of the thoracic duct
  134. what is on VD at each time on a clock
    aortic - arch covered by spine not seen
  135. what is on VD at each time on a clock
    MPA/pulmonary trunk
  136. what is on VD at each time on a clock
    left atrium
  137. what is on VD at each time on a clock
    left ventricle
  138. what is on VD at each time on a clock
  139. what is on VD at each time on a clock
    right ventricle
  140. what is on VD at each time on a clock
    right atria
  141. what is seen on lateral view according to a clock
    2 and 9
    waist of heart
  142. what is seen on lateral view according to a clock
    aortic arch
  143. what is seen on lateral view according to a clock
    left atrium
  144. what is seen on lateral view according to a clock
    left ventricle
  145. what is seen on lateral view according to a clock
  146. what is seen on lateral view according to a clock
    right ventricle
  147. what is seen on lateral view according to a clock
    right atria
  148. how are radiographs of the heart checked for rotatio
    • costochondral junctions and shoulder joints
    • level
  149. what makes up the left margin of the caudal mediastinum
    phrenicopericardiac ligament
  150. why is the aortic arch not visible in the DV view
    summated over cranial mediastinum and spinr
  151. the left ventricle makes up _____ half of the silhouette of the heart
    caudal left
  152. what arises on the left cranial side of the heart
    pulmonary trunk
  153. what is the pulmonary trunk called by radiologists
    main pulmonary artery MPA
  154. on which side of the DV view will enlarged atria be seen
    extending to the left
  155. when can the brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian artery be visualized in a lateral ragiograph
    air in mediastinum (pneumomediastinum
  156. what are located at the base of the aorta as it comes out of the ventricle
    aortic valve and sinuses
  157. what large vessels comes out of the center of the base of the heart
    aortic arch
  158. is the left auricular appendage visualized on a lateral radiograph and why
    no , located in middle of heart (superimposed)
  159. list the divisions of the left bronchi
    • cranial (to cranial part of canial lobe)
    • middle ( to caudal part of cranial lobe)
    • caudal
  160. lungs should not be seen on radiographs b/c they are ____ densities
    air - black
  161. the cranial lobe of the left lung is divided into cranial and caudal parts, instead of 2 separate lung lobes by anatomists b/c one _______ _________ supplies air to both parts
    lobar( secondary) bronchus
  162. why do radiologists speak of 3 left lung lobes
    look like 3 radiographically
  163. what is the radiologist left medial lung lobe anatomically
    caudal part of cranial lobe
  164. list the lobes of the right and left lungs radiographically (anatomically)
    • right - cranial, middle, caudal and accessory
    • left - cranial middle (part of cranial lobe) and caudal lobe
  165. the pleural cavities are potential, not real, spaces b/c ___________ _____ holds the visceral pleura of the lungs to the parietal pleura of the thoracic wall
    serous tension
  166. the lungs are basically evaluated by the presence or abscense of ______ and _______
    fluid and air
  167. the 2 sides of the thorax should be compared for differences in _______ in the VD and DV views
  168. what is a radiographic term for the pulmonary trunk
    main pulmonary artery (MPA)
  169. what structures are located in the area of the cranial waist of the heart in a lateral projection
    arch of aorta, right auricular appendage, and pulmonary trunk
  170. what will enlargment of arch of aorta, right auricular appendage or pulmonary trunk cause
    loss of cranial cardiac waist
  171. the pulmonary arteries are located over the ____ of the heart
  172. how are lateral thoracic films evaluated for rotation
    • costochondral junctions
    • shoulder joint
    • same level
  173. how is the VD and DV projection of the thorax evaluated for rotation
    sternum and spinal column superimposed
  174. list 4 -5 things evaluated when reading thoracic films
    • technical quality
    • all of the thorax in film
    • symmetrical positioning
    • expiratory or inspiratory film
    • structures
  175. what are the borders of a thoracic radiograph
    • chest wall, thoracic spine
    • sternum
    • diaphgram
    • thoracic limb in view
  176. for what is the pericardial cavity eveluated
    for fluid or air
  177. for what is the heart evaluated
    shape, size, position, opacity, and changes in silhouette
  178. what is the cranila limit of the abdomen
  179. why is the cranial surface of the diaphragm easily visualized
    water density contrast by adjacent air density of the lungs
  180. what can contrast the abdominal side of the ventral diaphragm and the liver. why
    falciform ligament, fat filled
  181. what can contrast the abdominal side of the dorsal diaphragm
    air in fundus of the stomach
  182. what oblique soft tissue opacity in the cranial mediastinum is normally seen in DV and VD views of cats and young dogs
    sail sign (thymus)
  183. where are the cranial mediastinal lymph nodes located
    cranial mediastinum
  184. the pluera of the caudal mediatinum is ____, allowing air or fluid to pass between the pleural cavities
  185. what term do radiologists use for the tracheal bifurcation
  186. for what is the mediastinum evaluated
    shifts, width, abnormal density, or masses
  187. do the cranila or caudal bronchi show up better why
    caudal - b/c thicker lung (water density) around them
  188. how many divisions foes the left bronchus have
    2: 1 cranial lobe, 1 caudal lobe
  189. how many secondary bronchi (lobar) arise from the right bronchus
    4 cranial, middle, caudal, and accessory
  190. what is seeing air in the bronchi called
  191. what nerve supply the interocstal muscles and a lot of the thoracic wall
    intercostal n (ventral bracnshes of the thoracic n)
  192. how should a film be placed on the veiwing screen
    same way every time
  193. how should DV and VD films bbe placed on the veiwing screen
    so right side is to left in both views (VD and DV)
  194. what recumbency is the animal in for VD and DV films
    • VD- dorsal recumbency
    • DV- sternal recumbency
  195. how should lateral views be placed on the viewing screen
    cranial side to the left
  196. what does a R or L marker on a lateral film of trunk mean
    animal on right of left side, respectively right or left lateral recumbency so represents view also
  197. what do R and L markers tell you in DV or VD films
    side of animal
  198. what is the 1st rule when shooting films
    all of the thorax in film
  199. list 3 differences of the cat thorax compared to a dog
    • more tiangular
    • heart more upright
    • thorax more lucent
  200. what glandular structure is in the cranial mediastinum of the young
  201. from where to where do the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale shunt blood
    from pulmonic to systemic circulation
  202. what are the 2 fetal bypasses away from the lung circulation
    foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus
  203. during fetal development, _____ supplies the fretus with its oxygen and nutrietns and eliminates waste
  204. what returns blood from the abdomen, pelvis and pelvic limbs
    caudal vena cava
  205. what vien returns blood from the head, neck, thoracic limb and cranil part of the thoracic walls to the right atrium
    cranial vena cava
  206. what huge vein passes superficially in the neck
    external jugular vein
  207. where does the ductus arteriosus join the aorta in relationship to the brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian arteries
    past them
  208. what is ventricular diastole
    when ventricles relax and fill w/ blood
  209. term fro ventricular contraction
    ventricular systole
  210. on which side of the heart is the opening into the RV
    the exit
    • into - right side
    • out- left side( wraps around cranial side)
  211. what thin cords anchor the AV valves to the papillary muscles
    shordae tendineae
  212. which side of the heart receives blood from te body
    right side RA - pulmonary side
  213. the right atrium receives blood primarily through which 2 veins
    cranial and caudal venae cava
  214. what vessels travel away from the heart
  215. what is the definition of a vein
    vessels traveling toward the heart
  216. what is the potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the serous pericardium
    pericardial cavity
  217. name the fibroserous sac enclosing the heart
  218. the mediastinum divided the ____ ____ into right and left halves
    thoracic cavity
  219. what thin walled sac of the bronchial tree are for gas exchanges
  220. what artery supplies the tissue of the lungs
    bronchoesopheal artery
  221. what brings oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
    pulmonary veins
  222. generally in relationship to what structure is a lung biopsy performed
    craniodorsal to the basal border of the lung
  223. list the osseous boundaries of the thoracic inlet
    1st rib, 1st sternebra (manubrium) 1st thoracic vertebra (or last cervical vertebra)
  224. with what cavities is the bony thorax associated
    whole thoracic cavity ( 2 pleural cavities) an intrathoracic part of abdomen
  225. list 7 processes of vertebra
    • 1 spine
    • 2 transverse processes
    • 4 articular (2 cranial and 2 caudal)
  226. list 3 ways costal cartilage can terminate
    connect to sternum, or costal arch, or end free
  227. what part of the rib articulates with contiguous thoracic vertebrae
    head of rib
  228. with what does the tubercle of the rib articulate
    transvers process of the same numberes vertebra
  229. what are the unpaired bones makiing the floor of the bony thorax
  230. what is the cylindrical tube exteneding from the larynx to the lungs
  231. what part of the trachea splits inot right and left pulmonary bronchi
    tracheal bifurcation
  232. list the lobes of the dogs lungs
    • left- cranial and caudal
    • right - cranial middle, caudal and accessory
  233. what causes the sound heard as a heart murmun
    blood flow turbulence
  234. what are the 2 types of murmurs related to location in heart cycle
    diastolic or systolic murmurs
  235. what causes valvular murmurs
    leaky(insufficient) or narrowed (stenotic valves)
  236. what could cause systolic murmur
    • semilunar(aortic of pulmonic) stenosis
    • insufficiency (left> right AV
  237. what can cause a diastolic murmur
    semilunar (aortic pulmonic) insufficiency
  238. what is the clinical significance of the line of pleural reflection
    demarcates the pleural from the peritoneal cavity
  239. what is pleurocentisis/thoracocentesis
    surgical puncture of the chest wall for drainage of fluid
  240. where is thoracocentesis done
    middle of the 7-8th intercostal space just dorsal to the costochondral junction
  241. how can the pleural cupula be clinically importatn
    can open pleural cavity with an incision near the thoracic inlet
  242. what is the term for inflammation of the pleura
  243. why is pneumothorax or pyothorax usually bilateral in carnivores
    mediastinum is fenestrated
  244. in what could a tear in the thoracic part of the trachea result
  245. how can infection of the neck migrate to the thorax
    down deep fascia to the endothoracic fascia
  246. what is the normal respiratory rate for dogs and cats
    • 20 - dogs
    • 25 - cats
  247. how do the olecranon and the intercostal spaces relate when standing
    olecranon at the 5th intercostal space or 5th rib
  248. how far cranially does the dome of the diaphragm extend
    6th intercostal space just behind the olecranon/heart
  249. where is the heart located in relationship to the intercostal spaces and the arm muscles
    between 2(3)-5(6) intercostal space, mmostly under muscles
  250. what is a memory aid for the heart valves point of maximum intensity
    • Pam 345
    • right AV - low 5th
  251. outline how you ausculate the heart with a stethoscope
    • 1st locate the point of the elbow (5th ICS) finc Lt AV: 5th ICS, move 1 ICS cranial and up
    • aortic, then 1 ICS cranial and up: pulmonic
  252. what vessels should be considered when opening the thorax
    • internal thoracic a on the thoracic floor of the thorax
    • (don't cut near sternum)
    • intersocatl vessels and n: caudal to rib (cut in center of intercostal spaces)
  253. describe the cavity entered when inserting a needle to either side of the line of pleural reflection
    • craniodorsal = thorax 1st
    • caudoventral = abdomen
  254. where is the basal border of the lung
    roughly 1-2" craniodorsal to and parallel to the line of pleural reflection
  255. what are the boundaries of the ausculationt triangle
    • cranial: caudal border of the triceps brachii
    • dorsal: epaxial m
    • caudoventral: curved line from olecranon to next to the last dorsal intercostal space
  256. what is air in the mediastinum
  257. what is the surgeons pericardium
    sac opened to access epicardial covered heart
  258. what is the compression of the heart due to collection of blood or fluid in the pericardia sac
    cardiac tamponade
  259. what is done with the pericardium after open heart surgery
    left unsutured or only loosely approximated to avoid cardiac tamponade
Card Set
Anatomy 1 - All thorax
Feline and canine Thorax only *Stared questions*