1. what are iron rings called in k-cone
    Fleisher rings
  2. how does riboflavin play a key role in energy metabolism
    it turns carbs into ATP, it helps break down fats, proteins and carbs.
  3. why does glycation occur more often in diabetics
    because of the higher levels of plasma glucose…more fuel to feed the fire, so the fire burns bigger, but quicker
  4. what are the striae called in kcone?
    Vogt’s striae
  5. what does Levaquin do?
    it is a fluoroquinolone
  6. what does promethazine do?
    it is used to treat nausea and vomiting..a first generation antihistamine similar to Benadryl (Phenergan)
  7. sumatriptan is used for what?
    acute treatment of headaches
  8. what is benzonatate:
    an anti cough medicine like Mucinex
  9. How does Nexplanon work
    progestin release…stops ovulation
  10. what is a 1-2 on the modified frisen scale
    what is a 1-2 on the modified frisen scale
  11. what are patton folds:
    retinal folds that spared the RNFL and the choroid
  12. The differential diagnoses for the bilateral optic disc edema considered in the case include
    • Pseudopapilledema
    • Papillitis
    • Hypertensive optic neuropathy
    • Central retinal vein occlusion
    • Ischemic optic neuropathy
    • Papilledema
  13. Pseudopapilledema
    sector swelling, disc drusen
  14. Papillitis
    unilateral swelling, affects VA
  15. Hypertensive optic neuropathy
    extreme elevation of bp, vascular changes, HTN
  16. Central retinal vein occlusion
    acute vision loss, unilateral
  17. Ischemic optic neuropathy
    pale disc, acute vision loss
  18. What does chem 14 lab do..comprehensive metabolic panel
    it tests your body’s chemistry and the way it uses energy

    How kidneys and liver are functioning

    Blood sugar

    Electrolyte levels (Na, K, Cl-, CO2)

    How much protein is in your blood (albumin
  19. what liver tests are in chem 14
    ALP alkaline phosphatase

    ALT (alanine amino transferase)

    AST (aspartate amino transferase)

  20. what kidney tests are in chem 14?
    Bun blood urea nitrogen

  21. Why could chloride be high after diarrhea
    loss of bicarbonate from excessive sodium loss
  22. What do the labs mean in the pseudotumor case?
    Excessive sodium loss – dehydrated, or low bi carb

    High WBC – a general infection/inflammation

    High neutrophils – a general sign of infection, likely bacterial, stress, thyroiditis, but likely it was from her smoking habit

    High eosinophils – could be allergic reaction

    Low lymphocyte – maybe a bacterial infection, or an auto immune disease

    Inflammation denied by normal ESR/CRP
  23. syphilis panel labs
    • VDRL               screens for active syphilis     
    • FTA-ABS          checks for history of syphilis through antibodies
  24. Lysozyme A
    to rule out sarcoidosis
  25. Hep panel - r/o may cause inflammation of the eyes
    • HA Ab-IgM
    • HA Ab-IgG
    • HBsAg
    • HCV
  26. CRP
    to r/o chronic inflammatory disease
  27. CBC:     
    Elevated MCV
    ABS neutrophils
    • could be alcoholism
    • general systemic inflammation
  28. CMP               
    Liver: Elevated ALP
    Renal: elevated AST
              Elevated ALT
    Low for albumin
    • Liver enzymes were high from APAP abuse
    • AST/ALT could be a sign of alcoholism
    • sign of acute or chronic inflammation
  29. Urinalysis
    confirmatory test for renal dz
  30. ACE
    r/o sarcoidosis
  31. NAT for HIV1, HIV1/o/2
    neurosyphilis and HIV are friends
  32. Toxoplasma IGG/IGM
    r/o recent history of toxoplasmosis
  33. EBV DNA
    positive for mononuculosis...a herpetic variant infection
  34. penicillin G
    for late/neurosyphilis
  35. IM Rocephin
    Uncomplicated gonococcal infection of pharynx, cervix, urethra, or rectum
  36. bicillin
  37. Azithromycin 1 g
    effective against uncomplicated urogenital gonorrhea
  38. Doxycycline 100
    first-line treatment of choice for chlamydia
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