In its early years, psychology focused on the study of ________; from the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of ________.
D) mental processes; observable behavior
Which perspective is most concerned with the unique ways in which individulas interpret their own life experiences?
Which psychological perspective is most likely to be concerned with identifying the powers and the limits of human reasoning?
Which perspective would emphasize that the differing political and economic systems of the united states and china lead citizens of these two countries to adopt many different customs and attidues?
To say that "psychology is a science" means that:
B) psychologists approach the study of thoughts and actions with careful observation and rigorous analysis
In a class lecture, Professor Hampton emphasized the extenet to which abnormal body chemistry can contribute to psychological disorders. The professor's lecture highlighted a __________ perspective on psychological disorders.
Mark believes that people's dislike of bitter-tasting foods is an inherited trait because it has enhanced human survival. His belief best illustrates the __________ perspective.
The behavioral perspective is most likely to emphaize the importance of:
Dr. MacPherson believes that the way students attend to, organize, and think about the information in their textbooks will strongly influence their ability to later remember and use what they haev studied, Dr. MacPherson's ideas most directly exemplify the __________ perspective.
Which psychological perspective is most likely to examine how group membership influences individual attitudes and behaviors?
Dr. Howard conducts basic research on the relative effectiveness of massed practice and spaced practice on a person's ability to remember information Dr. Howard is most likely a _________ psychologist.
Mrs. Alfieri believes that her husband's irritability toward her results from his unconscious feeligns of hostility toward his own mother. Mrs. Alfieri is interpreting her husband's behavior from a ___________ perspecitve.
Which of the following correlations between self-esteem and body weight would enable you to most accurately predict body weight from knowledge of self-esteem level?
Preditction is to _______ as explanation is to ______.
C) correlation; experimentation
Research participants are randomly assigned to different conditions in an experiment in order to:
A) reduce the likelihood of any preexisting differences between the groups of participants assigned to the different conditions
Seven members of a girl scout troop reprot the following individual earnings from their scale of candy 4, 1, 7, 6, , 8, 2. In this distribution of individual earnigns, the mean is ______ the mode and _______ the median
D) less than; less than
Dr. Donelian wants to reduce his students' perception that psychological experiments merely document the obvious. His best strategy would be to ask the students to:
C) predict the outcomes of experimetns before they are told the actual results
Compared to nonscientific theories, the unique feature of scientific theories is that they:
D) generate testable hypothese
hypotheses are best described as:
In order to gain further understanding of how brain malfunctions influence behavior, Dr. Mosher extensively and carefully observed and questioned two stroke victims. Which research method did Dr. Mosher employ?
B) the case study
a majority of respondents in a national survey agreed that "classroom prayer should not be allowed in public schools." only 33 percent of respondents in a similar survey agreed that "classroom prayer in public schools should be banned" these divergent findings best illustrate the importance of
A) wording effects
Which research method would be most effective for identifying the mating rituals of north american deer?
A) naturalistic observation
a researcher would be most likely to discover a negative correlation between:
B) self-esteem and depression
a correlation between self-esteem and annual income of -.75 would indicate that:
D) higher levels of annual income are associated with lower levels of self-esteem
which of the following correlations between annual income and education level would best enable you to predict annual income on the basis of level of education
Mr. Brown has gathered evidence showing that the weight of grade school students correlates positively with reading skill. beffore he uses this evidence to conclude that body weight enhances reading ability, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that:
D) correlation does not prove causation
If psychologists discovered that people who live at the poverty level have more aggressive children do wealthy people, this would indicate that:
C) people's economic status and the aggressiveness of their children are negatively correlated
experimentation is more useful than correlational measures for testing the clame that:
D) people's friendliness and feelings of happiness are increased by consumption of alcohol
correlation is to _______ as experimentation is to _______
D) prediction; explanation
random samplings is to _______ as random assignment is to ___
A) surveys; experiments
In corder to study some effects of alcohol sonsumption, Dr. Chu tested the physical coordination skills of 21-yr old men who were first assigned to drink a beverage with either 4, 2, or 0 ounces of alcohol in the laboratory. In this study, the independent variable consisted of:
C) the amount of alcohol consumed
seven memebers of a 4h club reported the following individual earnigns from the sale of cakes 7, 13,3, 5, 2, 9. in this distribution of indificual earnings, the mean is _________ the mode and ________ the median
C) greater than; greater than
researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between:
A) causes and effects
in a written reprot of their research, psychologists specify exactly how anxiety is assessed, thus providing their readers with a(n):
D) operational definition
which of the following scientific procedures is most useful for helping researchers avoid false generalizations?
A) random sampling
correlaiton research is most useful for purpose of: