OPP exam 1

  1. Biomechanical, Postural, Structural Model
    Structure and function are reciprocally inter-related:

    ◦Normalstructure is essential to normal function.

    ◦Normal function is essential if normal structure is to be maintained.

    • OMT
    • is geared toward returning the body to normal
  2. homeostasis
    • tendency to stability in the normal body states (internal environment) of the organism.
    • It is achieved by a system of control mechanisms activated by negative
    • feedback;

    maintenance of nearly constant conditions in the internal environment.
  3. ways to control homeostasis
    • ◦Heart rate
    • ◦Tissue pressures
    • ◦Blood
    • pressure
    • ◦Concentration
    • gradients
    • –Fluid
    • ionic balance (Na+, K+, Cl-,
    • etc.)
    • –pH

    • –Blood
    • glucose
    • ◦Temperature
    • ◦Hormones
    • ◦DNA
    • expression
  4. allostasis
    • Maintenance by an organism of internal physical or
    • psychological stability by making changes during situations of challenge; see allostatic load.

    • The body’s attempt to compensate in stressful situations to protect its
    • functioning.

    • An adaptive condition that results from activation of the arousal system in the
    • brainstem.
  5. allostatic load
    • used to refer to environmental challenges that cause an organism to begin efforts to
    • maintain stability (allostasis).
  6. activation of arousal system
    • Allostatic load alters bodily functions by activating the autonomic nervous system and the
    • Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis.

    • This
    • causes a release of norepinephrine, adrenal corticosteroids, cytokines, and
    • more.

    Short-term Effect: Survival

    Long-term Effect: Cumulative and Pathologic
  7. epigenetics
    Epigenetics is a new study of epigenes

    • Epigenes are cellular material that sit on top of the genome and control expression of
    • the genes. One method is methylation.

    B vitamins can provide methyl groups.
  8. resiliency: courage
    • developing the skills and perceptions that lead to being more courageous in many areas of
    • one’s life
  9. resiliency: optismism
    • having confidence in one’s own ability to
    • solve problems, take positive action, and developing skills in focusing on the
    • positives, even in difficult situations
  10. resiliency: success
    • identifying one’s own relative strengths and limitations, setting and achieving goals,
    • being organized and persisting, becoming self-disciplined and being resourceful
    • in solving problems
  11. resiliency: core values
    acting on important pro-social beliefs about how one should behave towards others
  12. OMT and allostatic load
    OMT resolves Somatic Dysfunction:

    Detected by palpation

    Changes in Tissue texture

    Anatomic Asymmetry of the effected region

    Altered ease or Range of motion

    Increased sensitivity to Touch (hyperalgesia)


    Denslow biopsied SD and found edema and inflammation as underlying cause
  13. 5 models of treatment
    ◦Biomechanical, Postural, Structural



    ◦Metabolic, Nutritional, Bioenergetic

  14. Biomechanical, Postural, Structural
    Structure and function are reciprocally inter-related:

    Normal structure is essential to normal function.

    Normal function is essential if normal structure is to be maintained.

    OMT is geared toward returning the body to normal
  15. neurological model
    • Involves the central and peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine
    • system

    • Treat by influencing sensory, motor, and autonomic nervous systems and/or the
    • reflexes associated with them
  16. respiratory circulatory model
    Influences movement of fluid: lymph, blood, air

    Operates with macro- and micro-forces
  17. metabolic/nutritional/bioenergenic model
    Focuses on inherent energies in the body through proper nutrition

    Improves metabolism through specific nutritional support
  18. psychobehavioral model
    Influences perceptions of pain, illness, disability

    • Anxiety and stress respond favorably to hands-on treatment and can break the cycle:
    • pain--> anxiety--> pain--> fear/anger--> pain...etc.
  19. health/homeostasis
    A natural state of harmony

    The human body is a perfect machine created for health and activity.

    A healthy state exists as long as there is normal flow of body fluids and nerve activity.
  20. disease/allostasis
    Is an effect of underlying causes, often multifactorial.

    • Illness is often caused by mechanical impediments to normal flow of bodily fluids and
    • nerve activity.

    • Environmental, social, mental, and behavioral factors contribute to the etiology of disease
    • and illness.
  21. when was the term osteopathy coined
  22. osteopthy banner unfurled in
  23. at stills first treatment
    • žSelf
    • administered for a headache when 10 years old using a plow line and blanket to
    • cradle his head.

    • ž20
    • years later, after studying anatomy, he thought it suspended “…the action of
    • the great occipital nerves” and gave “…harmony to the flow of the arterial
    • blood to and through the veins.”

    • Later,
    • this lead to the belief that “…the artery is the river of life, health, and
    • ease, and if muddy or impure disease follows
  24. electism
    • –Using
    • specific plants per sx
  25. homeopathy
    like cures like
  26. faradism
    therapeutic use of electric currents
  27. baunscheidtism
    • –A
    • form of acupuncture in which the area is rubbed with a stimulating fluid, oils, scarification
  28. 1st osteopathic school
    • žHe started the first school in Kirksville
    • in 1892 (American School of Osteopathy)
  29. magnetism
    hypnotic healing
  30. acupuncture
    system of meridian
  31. chapmans reflex
  32. consistent point (can be viscerosomatically oriented)
  33. strain//counterstrain
    more anatomically based, traumatically induced
  34. trigger points
    • can create somatovisceral, triggers
    • reference pattern when pressure placed,

    • transmitted
    • via nerves (gallbladder to shoulder pain)
  35. facilitation
    • - autonomics lecture (resting electrical potential), spillover affecting
    • mulptiple interneurons
Card Set
OPP exam 1
OPP exam 1, treatment models