Organic chemistry 2 (some families)

  1. Tetrahedral compounds  (explain)
    • Only has single bonds
    • 3d in shape
    • Delocalized electrons
  2. Tetrahedral compounds e.g
    • Alkanes
    • chloroalkanes
    • alcohols
  3. Planar compounds (explain)
    • Has triple or double bonds
    • 2d
    • bonds prevent rotation
  4. Planar compounds e.g
    • Alkenes
    • alkynes
    • esters
    • carboxylic acids
    • aldehydes
  5. Solubility in chloroalkanes
    • not soluble in water (polar)
    • soluble in non-polar solvents (cyclohexane)
  6. Main uses chloroalkanes
    solvents for removing oil and grease marks from machinery and in the dry cleaning of clothes
  7. Boiling points
    higher than alkanes due to polar c-cl bonds (extra energy)
  8. Alcohol general formula
  9. Alcohol info
    • aliphatic
    • tetrahedral
  10. Alcohol ending
    • -OH ending
    • (v-shaped)
  11. Primary alcohol
    where the carbon atom joined to the -OH group is attached to only one other carbon
  12. Secondary alcohol
    where the carbon atom joined to the -OH is attached to two other carbon atoms
  13. Tertiary alcohol
    where the carbon atom joined by the -OH group is attached to three other carbon atoms
  14. Fermentation
    alcohols released from sugars
  15. Denaturing agents
    It renders a substance unfit for purpose without destroying the usefulness of applications of the substance
  16. Enzyme in yeast and purpose
    zymase. catalyzes the reaction
  17. Denaturing agent e.g
    • methanol
    • methylated spirits
  18. Boiling points in alcohol
    higher than alkanes due to polar group (-OH)

    that gives rise to hydrogen bonding
  19. Solubility in alcohols
    decreases with longer chains
  20. al
  21. al
  22. al
  23. al
  24. al
  25. al
  26. al
  27. Aldehydes general formula
  28. Aldehydes ending
  29. Where is the functional group
    at the end of the chain
  30. Solubility in aldehydes
    due to the fact that hydrogen bonding takes place between the O atom of the carbonyl group and an H atom of a water molecule

    decreases with the length of carbon chains

    longer chains soluble in cyclohexane (organic solvent)
  31. Uses of formaldehyde
    used as a preservative
  32. Boiling points in aldehydes
    lower than alcohols (no hydrogen bonding)
  33. The functional group of ketones
  34. Boiling points in ketones
    • higher than alkanes polar +C=O-
    • lower than alcohols
  35. Solubility in ketones
    short-chain soluble in water due to a polar carbonyl group

    long-chain ketones are soluble in non-polar solvents
  36. Ketones formula
    • r
    •   c=O
    • r
  37. Carboxylic acids formula
  38. Carboxylic acids ending
    -OIC acid
  39. carboxylic acids functional group
    • O
    •                            =
    •                            C
    •                        R      OH
  40. Solubility in carboxylic acids
    short-chain soluble in water  (COOH)

    long-chain soluble in organic solvents
  41. Boiling points of carboxylic acids
    • Higher than alcohols
    •  O=C C=OH
  42. Condensation reaction
    a chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule with the loss of a smaller molecule such as water
  43. Examples of a condensation reaction
  44. What is an ester
    the reaction between carboxylic acid and alcohol
  45. Steam distillation
    a separation process used to isolate compounds at temperatures below their decomposition temperatures. It is carried out by bubbling steam through the material and distilling off the immiscible liquids
  46. Principle of steam distillation
    that a mixture of two immiscible liquids boils at a temperature that is below that of the boiling point of each of the individual liquids. The hot mixture of water vapor (from the steam) and oil (from the plant) is passed through a condenser and the distillate that is collected contains a mixture of water and oil
  47. Immiscible liquids
    Liquids that do not mix with each other, they do not dissolve in each other
  48. Emulsion
    a dispersion of small droplets of one liquid in another liquid in which it is not soluble
Card Set
Organic chemistry 2 (some families)