Midparental height, aka _____ height. For boys, add ____inches or ____ cm to ___’s height. Plus _____’s height and divided by 2.
Target
5 inches
13cm
Mother
Fathers
(basically, add mom and dad height in inches together, + 5 inches /2) for girls: same but -5 instead of +5
This imagining modality can evaluate a child’s bone age:
X ray
Short stature is ____ SD from the average height
Greater than 2
Growth curve for a child that falls under the category of familial short stature:
Starts lower than average and end lower than average
Growth curve for a child that falls under the constitutional delay short stature category:
Starts lower than average but ends normal
Like Luke!
Pathologic short statures is ______ SD below the mean for chronologic age
Greater than 3.5 SD
Growth rate for pathologic short statures is ______ below the mean for chronologic age
Greater 2 SD
Pathologic short stature is when height is _____ below the target height when corrected for midparental height
Greater than 2 SD
Pathologic short stature is defined as:
Height >3.5 SD below the mean for chronologic age
Growth rate > 2 SD below the mean for chronologic age
Height >2 SD below the target height when corrected for midparental height
T/F: Chronic diseases like renal dz, asthma, CF, cardiac, celiac, AIDS and cancer can cause abnormal short stature growth pattern
True
GH deficiency, cortisol excess, hypothyroidism are examples of ______ cause of _____ growth pattern for short stature
Endocrine
Abnormal
Turner syndrome, noonan syndrome and achondroplasia are abnormal growth pattern for ____ stature
Short
Short stature genetic causes:
Turner syndrome
Noonan syndrome
Achondroplasia
Short stature endocrine causes:
GH deficiency
Cortisol excess
Hypothyroidism
15 year old girl whose height falls 3 SD below the average, comes in with lack of breast development (so what, neither did i), spaced nipples, webbed neck, shortened 4th metatarsals and left-sided heart disease, likely ______
Turner syndrome
A short patient comes in with facial dysmorphism and downward slanted eyes and low-set ears, likely _______. What are some other features that he may display?
A very short person comes in with a prominent forehead, short arms and thighs, what is the genetic mutation that occurred in this person?
FGFR3 mutation
This describes achondroplasia
Growth hormone therapy can be used for these conditions:
GH deficiency
Prader-Wili syndrome
SHOX deficiency
Turner Syndrome
Noonan syndrome
T/f: doses for adults on growth hormone therapy is higher than for children
False; doses for adults are lower than for children per kg of lean body mass
What are adverse effects of growth hormone therapy?
Pseudotumor cerebri (increased ICP
Arthalgia
Myalgia
Tall stature is defined as condition in which the height of an individual is ____ above the corresponding mean height for a normal subject of the same age and sex
2
Bone age = _____
Chronologic age
Tall stature from normal constitutional growth display _____ bone age
Advanced
Final height of “early bloomers” is ______
Normal adult range
When there is growth hormone excess causing abnormal tall stature, think _____
Excess GH before fusion of epiphyseal growth plates is ____
Gigantism
McCune Albright Syndrome (MAS), Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), Carney complex are ______ excess, resulting in ___ stature
GH
Tall
Excess GH after epiphyseal plates closed is ____
Acromegaly
T/F: Acromegaly is excess GH resulting in linear bone growth
False; acromegaly is after growth plate has fused, so bone grow laterally to the sides.
T/F: GH excess that begins in adulthood, after complete epiphyseal fusion, has no effect on stature
True
Non-GH excess cause of tall stature:
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
Precocious puberty
Penile enlargement with pubic hair but prepubertal testes seen in a boy is _____
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Stature at time of diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia is _____, and final height is ____
Tall
Short; because post-treatment because epiphyseal plates closed
(like in precocious puberty)
Abdominal CT of congenital adrenal hyperplasia shows ______
Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia
Bone age of a 9 year old boy with congenital adrenal hyperplasia would be ______
Like 15; basically bone maturity is greater than chronologic age
Elevated urinary 17-ketosteroid levels, elevated serum 17-hydroxyprogesteron is indicative ____
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Precocious puberty is onset of secondary sexual development before age _____ in girls, and ___ in boys
8 in girls
9 in boys
Precocious puberty stature at the time of diagnosis is ____, and final height stature is ____
Tall short
(like in congenital adrenal hyperplasia)
T/F: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia and precocious puberty both are tall stature at time of diagnosis and short final height; so these two are in both short and tall stature schemes
True
Genetic causes of abnormal tall stature:
Marfan
Klinefelter
Marfan and Klinefelter leads to ____ Stature
Tall
Very tall prepubertal boys with small testes, gynecomastia, marked lack of insight, poor judgement and impaired ability is likely _____, and this is due to chromosomal abnormality____.
Klinefelter
XXY
Chronic diseases can cause _____ stature
Short
Highest rate of growth in boys is ages ______, and In girls is ______
Boys ages 13-14
Girls ages 11-12
T/F: growth charts provides information is growth over time and it also gives info about the rate of growth
False; it only gives information on growth over time, but not the rate of growth
Rate of growth shown in growth velocity curve
How is the growth velocity curve computed?
Taking the rate of growth between each growth point and plotting it against age
Use the CDC growth chart for age _______, and use the WHO growth chart for age _____.
CDC greater than 2 years
WHO less than 2 years (because WHO growth charats only provide information on children up to 5)
Children over three years height should be measured while _____
Standing, must be able to stand without assistance.
For ages 2-3 years, children’s height measurement depends on_____
The child’s ability to stand erect for the time it takes to be measured
T/F: children under 2 years of age, height is measured with parents holding them up on their feet
False; they should be measured supine (measure length, not height) on a measuring board
Three phases of post natal growth are:
Infantile phase (rapid but decelerating growth in first 2 years)
Childhood phase (relatively constant velocity)
Pubertal phase (growth spurt of 8-14 cm per year)
Total growth in the infantile post natal growth phase is ______, and this happen in the _____ years of life
30-35 cm
First 2 years
A rapid but decelerating growth describe which phase of the post natal growth phase?
Infantile
Childhood phase growth is ______ velocity of _____ cm per year
Constant
5-7 cm
A “pre-pubertal dip” describes which phase of the post natal growth phase?
Childhood phase
Pubertal phase consists of growth spurts of ______ cm per year
8-14
Infants should be measured ____ clothes to the nearest _____ kg or _____ oz