Aquatic Ento Exam 1

  1. Lentic
    still (non-moving) freshwater
  2. Benthic
    associated with bottom substrate (vs water column)
  3. Limnetic
    well-lit zone, open surface waters in lentic waters away from shore
  4. Littoral
    zone near the shore area where sunlight reaches to the sediment and allows aquatic plant growth
  5. Lotic
    environments with fresh, flowing water
  6. lotic orders
    1st order streams are origin point. Two 1sts join to make a second, two seconds make a third, etc.
  7. headwaters (lotic)
    1st to 3rd order of a lotic system
  8. small rivers
    4th to 6th order lotic habitat
  9. large rivers
    7th to 12th order
  10. hyporheic zone
    region beneath and along side of a stream bed
  11. heterogeneous components of lotic habitats:
    hyporheic zone (region beneath and long side of a stream bed), main channel, slackwaters, flood plains
  12. Where do insects occur in lotic habitats (invert diversity is highest in lotic habitats)
    A few in the water column, but more abundant in photic/littoral zone and benthos
  13. Abiotic zones within lentic habitats
    • -Aphotic zone
    • -Photic zone
    • -Limnetic zone
    • -Littoral zone
  14. Air/water interface
  15. Which three orders make up most of the freshwater invertebrates in the hyporheic zone?
    While all freshwater invert phyla have representatives in this zone, it is mainly Diptera, Coleoptera, and Ephemeroptera.
  16. Characteristic of cave systems
    • -simple food webs
    • -low species diversity 
    • -high levels of endemism
    • -food comes from outside source
  17. stygofauna
    animals that only live in groundwater (mostly beetles)
  18. Marine environments
    • -mainly home to semi-aquatic insects
    • -mud flats, rock pools
  19. Caddisfly marine adaptation
    • -make homes out of coral, shell, seaweed
    • -can even lay eggs in coelum of starfish
  20. Open ocean colonizers
    Halobates water striders
  21. what can colonize puddles of crude petroleum
    brine flies: larvae are predacious and rely on atmospheric oxygen
  22. Why do insects need O2?
    Needed for cellular respiration; O2 is the last electron acceptor in mitochondrial reactions that release energy from digested food molecules
  23. How do insects obtain O2?
    Spiracules allow air in, then it enters a trachea then tracheoles
  24. What decreases the amount of oxygen that can be dissolved?
    • -increased temperature
    • -increase in salinity
    • -increase in altitude
    • -increase in depth of water
    • -low wind conditions
  25. Diffusion moves gases through respiratory surfaces; what variables affect the speed of gas movement?
    • -molecular weight of gas
    • -permeability of medium
    • -concentration gradient 
    • -distance
  26. Where does oxygen diffusion occur in insects?
    • -Across membranes and cuticular surfaces
    • -between tracheoles and tissue cells
    • -along tracheal tubes
    • -between water and the insect body
  27. spiracles
    segmentally arranged lateral pores
  28. tracheae
    • -cuticular ingrowths that branch internally from spiracles
    • -tracheoles branch off
  29. Open tracheal systems
    • -insects that breathe air
    • -spiracles must contact air
  30. Baetiscidae/armored mayfly
    • -pools/runs in sandy streams
    • -1 genus local
    • -enlarged notum
  31. Ephemeridae/burrowing mayflies
    • soft silt/sand rivers/lakes
    • mandibular "tusks"
    • fringed gills (1-7) held over abdomen
  32. Caenidae/small square-gill mayflies
    • slow streams
    • gills on 2 operculate
    • operculate gills protect functional gills 
    • can tolerate salt
  33. Ephemerellidae/spiny crawler mayflies
    • flowing waters
    • collector/gatherer 
    • No gills on 2
    • gills not forked or fringed
  34. Leptophlebiidae/prong gilled mayflies
    • gills on 1 slender
    • gills on 2-7 FORKED not fringed
    • some with tusks
  35. Baetidae/small minnow mayflies
    • small swimmers
    • lakes, ponds, slow streams
    • labrum with notch
  36. Ameletidae/Combmouthed Minnow Mayflies
    • monotypic
    • swimmer like Baetidae
    • short antennae
    • Pectinate spins on maxillae
  37. Isonychiidae/Brush-legged mayflies
    • monotypic (Isonychia)
    • live in swift currents
    • collectors/filterers 
    • medium sized swimmers
  38. Siphlonuridae/primitive minnow mayflies
    • swimmers
    • maxillae without pectinate spines
    • gills OVATE
  39. Flathead mayflies/Heptageniidae
    • live in flowing water, on rocks etc. (very common)
    • scrapers
    • gills 1-7
Card Set
Aquatic Ento Exam 1
Aquatic Ento Exam 1