- 1. species lived 3-4 million years ago.
- 2. Novel:: first ancestor to be quadripetal to bipedal
- 3. However, still archaic:
- A. spine attachment is higher
- B. big toe is more like a thumb.
- 4. scavenger: evidence of busting up bones and eating the bone marrow.
- 5. Tool making? NO. used teeth
- 6. brain size: 400 cm^3
- 1. time: 2-2.5 million years ago
- 2. Tool making:
- A. making sharp edges from rocks
- B. consciously designing a tool.
- C. 4ft
- D. 700 cm^3
- 1. Height: 5.5 ft
- 2. Brain size: 900 cm^3
- 3. 2 mil- 200,000 years ago
- 4. Tools:
- A. more complex tools. using rocks to make spears and axes. (NOT arrows!)
- 5. Migration: “stereotypical caveman” migrated out of Africa into northern climates
- 6. Learned to hunt in groups
- 7. Not sure about vocalization.
- 1. Unique to homo sapiens:
- A. developed art, such as cave drawings
- 2. Brain size: 1400 cm^3
- 3. Height: 6 ft
- 4. Tool making
- A. complex
- 5. Afterlife: buried gifts, belongings, weapons, and clothings with ppl for their next life.
- 6. Domestication:
- A. dogs: 50k
- B. Ag: 35k
- C. cats: 10k
- 7. Societal changes: division of labor
- A. effect: more free time due to this.
- 8. Novel innovations:
- A. plow
- B. replenish the soil techniques
- C. irrigation
- D. artificial irrigation.
- 8. what evolved 8-10000 years ago: large civilizations
Neanderthals and Homo sapiens
- 1. Both: buried gifts with the dead.
domestication of agriculture:
- 1. Effect:
- A. less migration
- 2. Domesticated what:
- A. rice, barley, other things such as figs
- B. regional animals such as llamas,
- 1. Time: 3500 bc
- 2. Geographical monuments:
- A. Tigris river
- B. euphrates river
- C. Iraq: Babylon
- D. Language alphabet
- E. Sumerian alphabet
- F. cuneiform: written language
- a. denoting or relating to the wedge-shaped characters used in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia, and Ugarit, surviving mainly impressed on clay tablets.
- G. Economic development:
- a. wheel invention: pottery
- b. religion: tied to politics
- i. power is linked education. education linked to the wealthy
- ii. maintain the status quo
- iii. first born son inherit wealth. not uncommon for sons 2-6 to go into theology or military
- H. Technological advances:
- a. developed circle and 60
- 1. sea-faring: Nile river
- 2. Religious system-monarchy
- 3. Pharoahs: considered Gods that acted like men
- A. Believed in afterlife, and “embalmed” them w/ your goods bc they were believed to go with you in the next life.
- B. enbalming: Remove guts and brain, and use chemicals.
- 4. Had a welfare program: slavery.
- 5. good in math and engineering
- 6. Astronomy: the calendar
- 7. Surveying: what land is good for building things
- A. flood on a regular basis "to capture this water"
- 8. hieroglyphics: way of documentation
- 1. time: 600 bc
- 2. metallurgy: good with metals
- 3. Plumbing
- A. sewer systems
- B. baths in homes.
- 4. created roads, called boulevards. this is where word originates from.
- 5. have monsoons and Indus river
- A. what does this do: ability for fresh water and
- B. sewage system!
- 6. Have 9 digit number system but NO zero.
- A. Numerical system: arabic numbers
- 7. Could become wealthy enough to move up in social status.
- 1. based along the yengstze river, or yellow river
- 2. ideographs: words can be written into sounds
- 3. Agriculturally:
- A. silkworms: fed them with mulberry
- B. honeybees: domestic bee is the European honeybee.
central/ south american civilizations
- 1. Mayans-central America such as Nicaragua
- 2. Incas- in Andes,
- 3. Aztecs- Mexico
egyptians and book duplication
have someone else write that book. But not written by someone of same class. Have someone of lower class write the book even if they don’t understand it. Prevents ppl altering the contents of the book.
: produced the idea of a publisher, a separate entity or person to make the copies.
Chinese and printing
- 1. Time: 100 ad.
- 2. Cai Lun: produced paper for his civilization
- 3. 900 AD: created wooden block printing press
- A. Con: deterioration
- B. Pro: speeds up copying process
- C. block = page for that book
How China impacted the West:
- 1. Arabs stole printing process from Chinese
- 2. Romans stole printing process from Arabs
- A. Europe did this at 1100 AD
- 1. created in 1400 AD
- 2. each little letter block is made out of metal.
- 3. Pro:
- A. Provided resource for people to read.
- Effect: Ruling class threatened by this.
- B. People caught with a printing press were incarcerated.
- a. People losing control over their wealth of knowledge in relation to other people.
- 1. city states, or ____ existed.
- A. these city states had similar culture but were different entities.
- 2. Aculturation existed: or acquiring ideas and concepts from other cultures.
- 3. Acropolis:
- A. For gathering of meetings, for defense, for cultural gatherings
- B. Prosperous society, trying to create alliances,
- C. Pirates always an issue in these places.
- 1. What: modern day scientists but in this society.
- 2. How: Collected very little data, mostly observational.
- A.Coming up w/ logical explanations.
- B. Not using any entities, gods, etc. to explain what is happening. The age of rationalism.
- 4. Associated with greeks?
- 5. Accuracy?: Explanations are not always accurate bc they didn’t collect data. But more correct than you think they are.
- 1. example of philosopher
- 2. Time: 640-540 BC.
- 3. Water is the primary element of the universe AND universal solvent.
- 1. Philosopher
- 2. First reasonable atomic theory. :
- 3. A.“All things consist of atoms.
- B. Atoms are eternal.
- C. Absolutely so small they cannot be further diminished.
- D. They are absolutely full. They are not compressable”
- 4. First statement of conservation of mass. Nothing can be made out of nothing. Nor can it be destroyed and return to nothing.
- **So novel bc, first to comment on conservation of mass, and first reasonable atomic theory**
- 1. geometry and planar figures.
- 2. Brought geometry to the forefront.
- 1. Early development of calculus
- 2. Pulleys
- 3. Helped with water go uphill. Water screw or auger.
- 4. Determined if crown was really made of gold through water displacement. (density of irregularly shaped object). had epiphany after the water overflowed when he was trying to take a bath (and that it is HIS volume that overflows of water).
- 5. shouts eureka naked among the streets
- 1. From: Island called "cos" in Mediterranean
- 2. 460-377 BC
- 3. Father of medicine, every new doctor does the Hippocratic oath
- 4. 4 basic elements that run the world: fire , earth , air, water
- 5. 4 physical qualities: warm, cool, dry, wet/damp
- 6. 4 humours: (what man is composed of)
- A. Phlegm: brain (think it is phlegm producing machine, not related to intelligence)
- B. blood: (heart)
- C. Black bile: originates from spleen
- D. Yellow bile: jaundice/liver
- 7. Menstrual cycle is identified
- 8. Environment impacts your health: wind, seasons, etc.
- 9. Sacred disease: epilepsy (person is possessed)
- 10. Aphorisms: source of Hippocratic oath
- 1.384-322 BC
- 2. Job: field biologist (if categorized in present terms)
- 3. His tutor was Plato
- 4. Concepts:
- A. organisms composed of 3 things:
- a. nutritive life: plants mostly this . humans begin mostly of this.
- b. motor life: animals more of this than plants, humans acquire more of this as we age.
- c. soul: humans acquire this as they age
- B. Speciation: Dividing animals into species (FIRST to do this!)
- a. Sanguinea: animals with blood (including fish)
- i. reproduce sexually (union of the sexes)
- many categories within
- b. spontaneous generation: animals w/out blood
- C. animals produce more of the same species and not some other species.
- D. woman and semen come together and form an embryo
- a. woman: material
- b. man: the growth or power
- (obviously humans, see it with chickens, etc)
- E. sex is inter-mingled in plants
- a. from text" emit an embryo called the seed"
- 1. What: a category of life dubbed by Aristotle (one of two)
- 2. what is all in this category:
- A. Man
- B. Viviparous quadapeds: 4 legged creatures that give live birth.
- C. Cetaceans: Marine mammals. Doesn’t recognize them as mammals, but realize something is different about them.
- D. Birds:
- E. Reptiles: reptiles and amphibians at this time.
- F. Bony fish
- G. Cartiligonous fish:
- 1. Greek
- 2. Father of botany. a little more difficult to study
- 3. student of Plato
- 4. Concepts:
- A. not all plants had same common structures
- B. Plant categorization:(from text)
- a. tree
- b. shrub
- c. under-shrub
- d. herb
- C. had medicinal uses for plants. not consistent though
- D. Potions:
- a. strickanide: poison
- b. oleander: fragrance that makes ppl more cheerful. smells like wine.
what is going on in 300 BC
Greeks escape from strife. Alexander the Great the ruler, and the society collapsed under his reign.
- 1. role: anatomist of human body
- 2. what he did:
- A. dissections
- B. vivisections: dissections on live animals and slaves.
- C. realized that the nerves went back to the brain.
- D. able to distinguish between sensory and motor neurons
- E. realized arteries pulsated, veins did not.
- 1. anatomist
- 2. observed wrinkling on the brain. animals had little to none.
- A. helped to advance anatomy further
Ancient Roman culture
- 1.captured british isles in their height.
- 2. Interests: more in technology than in science
- 3.Surveyors: made excellent roads
- 4. Invented mortars
- 5. Development of the roman arch: tunnel through a wall.
- A. Rocks along the opening.
- B. Put a keystone at the top.
- C. Weight is equally distributed
- 6. Sewer system
- A. public,
- B. underground
- 7. Public restrooms: had them connected to the sewer system
- A. Baths: heated
- 8. Aquaducts: built with the arch and brought water to the town. Some go thru the mountain.
- 9. Libraries and other buildings
- 10. Hadrian wall:
- A. Found in modern day England.
- B. England built this from shore to shore to protect themselves from the Scottish.
- C. 75 ft wall with occasional turrets.
- 1. In Rome
- 2. 142 ft high. 2nd highest structure at that time
- 3. Huge stone pillars
- 1. 160 ft high,
- 2. tallest structure the Romans have built
- 3. Built on old Nuro-pools (a former emporer)
- 4. Can see where logs were set to move cages up or down.
Gaius Plinius Secundus
- 1. "encyclopedia of observations"
- 2. Many statements that were mostly false: When offspring is sickly, senuous, stillborn,-> conception can happen quicker. F
- 3. wrote 37 volumes
- 4. He was a retreat from rationalism
- 5. Everything in nature was for man to take.
- 6. 23-79 AD
- 1. childhood: grew up in modern day Turkey
- 2. Newly educated physician
- 3. First job with Olympians
- 4. 130-201 AD
- 5. Developed the Hippocratic bed.: traction bed.
- A. Stretch out bone, align and release tension.
- B. (Similar) The rack: torture device.
- 6. Used soaked wine sponges to heal wounds, then stitch them up.
- A. knows wine is sterile
- 7. now physician for gladiators at coliseum
- 8. then became a physician to an emporer, Mark Arelius
- 9. Studied anatomy:
- A. dissected hogs and apes
- a. Applied to human anatomy. Led to a lot of error with human anatomy.
- B. also dissected humans:
- a. discovered blood in veins,
- b. air in arteries
- c. put this blood into another human...!
- 10. 3 pneuma:
- A. when inhaled, received animal spirits or psychic pneuma. (brain/nervous system)
- B. vital spirits or life pneuma (parts of arteries and heart)
- C. natural spirits or physical pneuma (parts of liver and veins)
- ** All necessary for body to function
- 11. In 2006, someone found his recipe for dying hair: calcium hydroxide,
- 12. Most famous physician of the Roman empire.
- 13. Christianity was moving across Europe.
Times of Galen
- 1. Christianity moving across Europe
- 2. Galen accommodated to this Christianity and had his writings align with this
- 1. ruling party and church must align.
- 2. lack of advances during this age
- 3. suppressed if doesn't align with church
- 4. Reasoning: "perfect" world, why try to explain
- 5. Great chain of being.
- A. God
- B. 3 sets of angels
- C. Universe
- D. Elements
- E. Humans
- F. Animals
- G. Plants
- H. Minerals
- 6. when you became a doctor, learned from Galen’s writings.
- 7. Arabs invaded southern Europe, and had them translated in Arabic.
- 8. then translated to Latin and then English.
- 1. Travel period: 1271-1291
- 2. "Travels of Marco Polo" WILDLY POPULAR
- A. Why: ppl were desperate for new information, this was totally new and different.
- B. went to India, China, his father and uncle
- 3. brought a caravan of goods back with him from these countries.
- 1. coffee book on animals
- 2. not any new information in a simple format.
- 3. very popular
- 4. at the end of the dark ages
Renaissance and Reformation
- 1. 1300-1787
- 2. when protestant church was formed
- 3. Gutenberg printing press during this time: 1450
- 4. 1787: marked the end of the French Revolution
- 5. Origin: in Italy, and slow process to get Europe out of Medieval Age
- 6. Wave of art
- 7. As society becomes more educated, more aware
- A. Ruling class feels threatened.
- B. More public debates. First probably a little scary bc church could throw the “inquisition” on you.
- a. These cost ppl their lives.
- C. Slow development of the middle class: now have opportunity to have class stability.
- D. Money and credit became more available.
- Concept of credit.
- 8. Sun dial: helps economy and technology
- 9. Exploit nature by collecting items
- A. question what they got from nature
- 10. New great explorers
- A. Christopher Columbus: Italian funded by Isabella
- B. Magellan: traveled around the world
- C. Mosco de gama
- D. Ponce de Leon
- E. Hernan cortez: conquered Mexico for Spain
- 11. Now we have universities controlled by church:
- A. Padua university: 1272 found in Venice, Italy
- B. Phillips University, Marburg
- 12. Anatomist-Artist: goal, to accurately reflect the anatomy in their sculptures.
- A. Michelangelo:
- B. Donetello:
- C. Leonardo Da Vinci: probably considered the greatest of the group
- a. worked at dissecting the eye: egg white encased the eye so that it he can have a better grip of the eye and the eye morphology isn't lost/
- b. 1452-1519
- c. notebooks were lost for almost 200 years
- 10. Nicolas Capernicus:
- A. 1473-1543
- B. Polish
- C. Astronomer:
- D. **Need to know this year** 1543
- E. Revolutions of the Heavenly spheres
- a. “Six books Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres”-> Called Revolutions
- b. purpose of book: heliocentric theory in which replaced the geocentric theory: We are not the center of the universe.
- c. discovered Mars and other planets did not exactly arch from left to right. Planets back track then finish the cycle
Six books Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
- 1. Heliocentric theory replaces a geocentric theory: we are not the center of the universe
- 2. Argues that “he is just explaining God’s beautiful universe “
- 3. Mars and other planets did not exactly arch from left to right. Planets back track then finish the
- 4. ownership of this book is banned
- 5. written by Nicolaus Copernicus
- 6. Kepler and Galileo reignited his theory
- 7. ** a key book in science**
- 1. hired as a professor in surgery
- 2. would read Galen's book w/ barber surgeon
- 3. got rid of barber surgeon and does the dissections himself due to the errors in books
- 4. challenged his book with public dissections
- 5. he is fair warned that he is not supposed to
- 6. grave robbed when necessary to get cadavers
- 7. 1514-1563
- 8. pointed out 200 differences between animal and human lifes
- 9. Church's reaction:
- A. unhappy with him since he is not following Galen's teachings.
- B. church was happy until they did dissections
- C. Book: The Fabric of the Human Body
- a. 1543
- b. (remember that Copernicus published a book this same year)
- 1. 1564-1642: Italian
- 2. Astronomer
- 3. built crude telescopes
- 4. Supported Copernicus' heliocentric theory
- 5. Was house arrested, and didn’t abide by this. Church tried to make an example of him.
- 1. Planets involved in gravitational motion, not “fly away”
- 2. Wrote Principia
- 3. pushed calculus forward
- 1. timeline: 1517-1590
- 2. very good medical practitioner
- 3. gun shot wounds
- A. remedy for gunshot wounds: bioling oil
- B. when they ran out of oil they realized that wounds heal better without:
- C. Pus is a bad thing: sign of a major infection. But they thought that was nature taking its course to balance out.
- 4. realized wine was better for wounds
- 5. Learned to tie off arteries
- 6. Artificial limbs
- 7. Breach babies so they can be delivered head first
- 8. Reaped benefits of Vesalius, learned to get in there and do dissection
- 1. "I think, therefore I am"
- 2. Autonomy, self awareness, self-identity
- 3. Developed Cartesian plane: x y axes, 4 coordiantes.
- 4. Had 6 essays
Galen: his anatomical drawing
- 1. arteries for air, blood for vein
- 2. Pneuma: entered through the break
- A. Gets transported from lungs to left side of heart-> the pulmonary vein.
- B. RA, LA
- RV, LV
- C. veins leave RA
- D. arteries enter LV
- E. stomach: food is boiled there and taken to the liver
- F. Liver: which receives food and processes it to blood and transfer this to the vein to the RA. This blood carries physical pneuma
- G. blood's purpose: contribute to the life pneuma
- H. Pores: "invisible pores" exist in Rv to lv.
- a. no proof that these existed
- I. pneuma mixes with blood
- J. LV: physical pneuma mixes with blood
- 1. Time: 1578-1657
- 2. student of: Fabricus, whose a student of Fallopio, whose a student of Vesalius
- A. (direct teaching descendent of Vesalius)
- 3. Discoveries
- A. valves: prevent backflow
- a. disproves Galen's "eb and flow" theory
- b. William Harvey was involved in a violent stabbing, saw that an artery was pulsating… which goes against Galen’s theory.
- c. They believe there is only one blood:
- B. Coagulation: now made an erroneous decision
- a. uncoagulated blood has "spirits" , came from living organism
How blood was proved to move in one direction:
- (lets say our vein moves right to left)
- 1. put pressure on one point. On the right side pressure builds up, (bc blood flows ONLY R to L) and heart rate lowers
- A. then moves this pressure point leftward, and sees that blood moved along thru that original pressure point
- 2. also disproves Galen how blood moves right to left. doesnt create a vacuum to move backwards
- All disproved by Harvey.
- 1. **argumentatively one of the best inventions in history for biology**
- 2. Glass in the past for magnifying
- 3. Zacharius Jennsens:
- A. multiple lens
- B. 1590
- C. invented first compound microscope.
- 4. mid 1600s: became much more convenient
- 1. 1628
- 2. a lot of these guys are trained as physicians, so he is a physician
- 3. Looked at various specimens under the microscope:
- A. tongue
- B. kidney
- C. skin
- D. liver
- 4. Also looked into internal structure of silkworm
- A. Malpighian tubules. The entire excretory of insects is found around the digestive.
- 5. plant anatomy
- 6. looked at embryological developments of chickens
- 7. 1660: described the structure of lungs
- A. traces arteries and veins: finds the capillaries! (3 years after Harvey dies)
- B. one of first ppl to see red blood cells and describe them.
- 1. Insect Development
- 2. Timeline: 1637-1680
- 3. Preformation theory: thought that this was correct.
- A. a lot of insects go thru metamorphosis stage.
- B. an insect emerges from the a molt. the insect was "preformed" and emerged from another
- D. various versions of this preformation: either a life is in the egg or sperm. that or female has life matter, and sperm has life form
- 4. doesn't believe in metamorphosis
- 5. Developed some techniques to dissect an organism without destroying it
- A. liquid wax: injected into blood vessels. therefore it can maintain its shape and integrity
- B. How to remove fat: remove with turpentine
- C. Put micropipette and insert them into the blood vessels
- D. look at capillaries and blood vessels
- 6. Then became a radical religious person
- 1. 1635-1705
- 2. student of Robert Boyle
- 3. Hooke's law:
- A. **important for development of watches**
- 4. Royal Society of London: instrumental in their development
- 5. Micrographia: 1665
- A. in here he gives the term cells
- B. looked like a prison cell
- C. Looked at a flea., has an elaborate drawing of this.
- 1. main interest: plant
- 2. timeline: 1641-1712
- 3. 1672: Philosophical history of plants
- 4. 1682: The Anatomy of Plants
- a. stamen and pistol
- 5. 1694: discovered that plants are sexually producing organisms
Antony van Leeuwenhoek (Lebeen hawk)
- 1. Timeline: 1632- 1723
- 2. He was not formerly educated, didn't go to university: however well trained in math and became a self taught researcher
- 4. Microscope maker:
- A. learned how to polish glass to make his own microscope
- B. probably made the best microscope for the next 125 years
- C. simple: hand held
- 3. lived in deft, holland
- 4. only knew Dutch
- 5. Had various jobs in town:
- A. tax revenuer
- B. cloth merchant
- C. wine gauger
- 6. Popularity: his talents circulated Holland
- A. ppl started to visit him such as Renier de Graat
- 7. had a relationship with Royal Society of London
- 8. Didn't have the writing capabilities as other scientists
- 9. Animalcules
- 10. Educated enough to read about other microscopists.
- 11. **probably considered the greatest of these microscopists since he saw numerous samples, had the best microscopes in the land,
- 1. Initial trigger: pepper
- 2. What: has seen microscopic molecules in water.
- A. has to put samples in water
- B. saw hot water removed these in the teeth.
- C. bi-nucleated: giardia
- D. saw different shapes of bacteria: cocci, bacillus, spirales
- E. wrote: "First observations of little animals"
- a. tries to establish a size with the animalcules
- b. no stains available yet
- c. Now talks about rainwater: has a more logical explanation from this point.
- d. Takes these little animals from gutters.
- His 3rd and 4th day observations were the same.
- Bullets come in grains, unit of weight
- Observes rainwater, sea water, and drinking water.
- Seawater ones were the black globule ones.
- 1. Water acts like a prism.,
- 2. Carefully cement two lenses together due to the inverse. 1830s
- 3. Light: a problem. with electricity, could use a substage condenser.
- 1. Had to overcome something.
- 2. Oil immersion: the lens on the 100x is a lot smaller , oil refracts the light.
- 3. Nearly same refractive index as glass to air.
- 1. Light microscope is limited to visible wavelength.
- 2. Once we developed photographic techniques, we can focus something in that is smaller with shorter wavelengths.
- 3. EM: Electron microscope: using electrons. Way way smaller. Wavelength: .1-.2 nm
- 4. Kroll and Ruska: developed in the 1930s
- 5. Cons: have to coat the sample with a conductive material to provide the positive charge.
- 6. You have got to put it in a vacuum setting so electrons don’t diffuse.