Which virus is the leading cause of infectious blindness in developed countries?
HSV keratitis is usually ____ (laterality), with symptoms of ____,___,___ and may involve ____
Pain, blurring, watery discharge
Exam demonstrates punctate/ diffuse dendritic lesions/ ulcers of corneal epithelium in Fluorescein stain, what is the pathogen?
Ocular nematodes include:
Vector and host for Loa loa:
Vector= Deer fly, mango fly
Definitive host = human
T/F: microfilariae form of loa loa is responsible for pathology
False; adults are responsive
Mango fly, deer fly bites us and transmits ____ form of ______ into us. These mature into ____ in our ____ tissue, which can then migrate to any area of our body, including _____
What is calabar swelling?
Localized, transient subcutaneous swelling caused by loa loa
See a worm crawling beneath the conjunctiva, think:
Loiasis, causing conjunctival inflammation and edema
T/F: loiasis does not require treatment because symptoms resolve once the worm leaves the eye
Which nematode causes keratitis?
Which nematode infection is also known as river blindness?
Vector and host of Onchocerca volvulus:
Vector- black fly
Onochocerca has ____ as its vector, while loa loa has _____ as its vector. Both have ___ as definitive host
Mango/ Deer fly
Which nematodes microfilariae circulates in the blood stream and which ones wander into tissues?
Bloodstream – loa loa
T/F: Onchocerciasis can lead to blindness because inflammation caused by adult nematodes that die in the eye result in reversible lesions on cornea and without treatment can lead to clouding of cornea and subsequently blindness.
False; it’s the wandering microfilariae that die in our eye that leads to possible blindness, not adults
Which eye worm is commonly seen in hot, humid climates and has dog as its definitive host?
Which worm can cause visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans?
T/F: humans are accidental hosts for toxocara canis
True; its definitive host is dogs
What for of toxocara canis can be found circulating in our bodies?
Larvae circulate in us, no adults because those are in doggies
Also no eggs are shed in us
A 3 year old child likes to play and eat dog poop, what form of toxocara canis might enter this child’s body?
Larvae will hatch in his small intestine, penetrate the intestinal wall and migrate via blood stream
Once Toxocara canis larvae is in the blood stream, what are the two places that it loves to go to?
Liver and eye
Hepatic granuloma is often seen in which disease caused by toxocara canis?
Visceral larva migran
Ocular larva migran is ____ (laterality), and associated with _____ inflammation in the _____
T/F: Ocular larva migran, caused by toxocara canis, can lead to reversible vision loss
False; it’s irreversible
Biggest risk factor for development Acanthamoeba keratitis is:
Acanthamoeba is an amoeba with _____ which are pseudopods that helps it move
T/F: acanthamoeba keratitis can only occur in immunocompromised contact lens wearer
False; it can occur in healthy contact lens wearer; in immunocompromised individuals, acanthamoeba can lead to granulomatous amebic encephalitis
Cysts of acanthamoeba have _______ characteristic.
With the outer wall kinda wrinkled and the inner wall having polygonal shape
T/F: transmission of acanthamoeba into our body is only though its trophozoite form
False; both cyst and trophs can enter the human body
Corneal scraping of acanthamoeba keratitis will show _____
Start shape cysts
T/F cysts and trophs of acanthamoeba likes to adhere to bacterial biofilms
Conjunctiva that covers the globe is _____ conjunctiva. Conjunctiva covers the lining of lids is ___ conjunctiva
Stye is also know as _____, which is a ______, meaning inflammation of eyelash follicles. Most commonly due to ______ which infects the _____ glands
Most common risk factor for orbital cellulitis is _____
Most common bacterial agents of conjunctivitis:
S aureus, Strep pneumo, nontypeable H flu, Moraxella
T/F: bacterial and viral conjunctivitis are both self-limiting
True; bacterial can be treated with abx for shorter clinical course and reduce person-person spread
Hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis is associated with which pathogen?
Neisseria, mostly N gonorrhoeae
Neonatal conjunctivitis is caused by:
N gonorrhoeae (ophthalmia neonatorum)
Chlamydia trachomatis (most prevalent form)
T/F: Chlamydia trachomatis is not an STI, can cause chronic keratoconjunctivitis
Contact lens wearers should be terrified by which two pathogens that can cause keratitis:
Bacterial keratitis pathogens are___,___, Viral cause of Keratitis is _____ and protozoal cause is _______, and nematode ______.
S aureus- most common
Pseudomonas – contact lens wearer
What is hypopyon?
Collection of inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber of the eye