What are protective factors?
- individual or environmental characteristics, conditions, or behaviors that reduce the effects of stressful life events
- anything that works as a buffer to mitigate stress
- mitigate the effects of stress, toxic stress and adverse experiences
What do protective factors increase?
individuals ability to avoid risks or hazards and promote social and emotional competence to thrive in all aspects of life now and in the future.
What are some protective factors?
- 1. Adolescent connectedness
- 2. Parent engagement in schools
- 3. Positive Parenting practices
- 4. Resources
- 5. School Connectedness
What is resilience?
- the ability to overcome serious hardships/challenges
- progress after a setback
- how to respond and cope
what is the mental health equation?
Biological predispositions + Life Events/Stressors over Social supports
What are risk factors?
- Factors that cause stress
- Make an individual more vulnerable to stress and less resilient in recovering from adversity
How does genetics play a role in resilience?
Genetics determines how resilient you are and if you are more sensitive to negative experiences
What are the 3 domains of resilience and protective qualities?
- 1. Individual/internal
- 2. Social/Family
- 3. Contextual/Environmental
What is the individual/internal domain of resilience and protective qualities?
qualities are intelligence, agreeableness, optimism, problem solving, esteem and self efficacy
What is the social/family domain of resilience and protective qualities?
Secure infant attachment to caregiver, access to a supportive adults, supportive parenting, parental harmony, pro-social behavior
What is the contextual/environmental domain of resilience and protective qualities?
safe neighborhoods, quality of schools, access to after-school programs, supportive extended family, successful school experiences, positive mentors
What are the four areas of human development?
- social emotional
what is the prevailing belief about children shaping their own development?
children are actively involved in their own growth and development
What is externalizing development?
personal qualities and attributes influence engagement with environment
What is internalizing development?
Formation of internal organization
What is continuous stage of development?
child's attainments are characterized by steady, small advances in thinking, language social behavior etc.
What is stage-like stage of development?
- Children progress through a series of unique developmental accomplishments resulting from fundamental re-organizing in abilities
- Development is marked by qualitative differences in thought, perception, language etc. at different stages
What is an active child?
An active child is actively exploring the environment being a part of what is going on around them.
What is the passive child?
A child that just responds to the environment and does not contribute in exploration
What is a sensitive period?
time when a child is particularly receptive to certain kinds of environmental experiences. Given the high level of receptivity, this is an ideal time for learning
What is a critical period?
time span, also referred to as the optimal or sensitive period, during which certain events or experiences must occur in order for the development of an organism to proceed normally.
What are resilience factors?
A variable that increases one's ability to avoid or cope with negative outcomes despite a risk for psychopathology
What's the difference between protective and resilient factors?
Protective factors are characteristics statistically associated with a decrease in the vulnerability to a health risk. Resilience is the ability of individuals to remain healthy even in the presence of risk factors.
What are mental health risk factors?
predisposition, stress, exploitation
Which qualities are predispositional?
physical, cognitive, and emotional vulnerabilities to a particular disorder
What is stress?
environmental conditions that require energy for adaptation
What is exploitation?
social stress that affects particular groups.
What did John bowlby contribute to attachment?
Believes that attachment developed as a result of an innate tendency to signal caregiver and the caregivers corresponding predisposition to respond to these signals. Fundamental need with a biological basis
What is attachment?
the process by which an infant's bids for care and attention become focused on a small number of preferred individuals.
What is the typical order of attachments?
mother, father, siblings
What is Bowlbyi suggesting about attachment?
suggested attachment and exploratory behavior systems operate in tandem. attachment is the basis for confident exploration
What did Mary Ainsworth contribute to attachment?
cross cultural support for attachment theory (U.S vs Uganda). Strange situations experiment. supported classification of 4 types of attachment
What are the four functions of attachment?
- 1. provide sense of security
- 2. regulation of affects and arousal
- 3. expression of feelings and communication
- 4. basis for exploration of the environment
Who is involved in the nature vs nurture?
Harry Harlow and Mary ainsworth
Thomas and Chess brought up what in attachment
easy, difficult, slow to warm up
What is the ages of the sensitive period?
6 months to 2 years
What are the four different groups of attachment?
- Group A- Insecure-avoidant attachment
- Group B- Secure
- Group C- insecure-ambivalent/resistant attachment
- Group D- insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment
What is secure attachment?
a relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver
What is insecure-avoidant attachment?
a pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver's presence, departure, or return
What is insecure-ambivalent/resistant attachment?
an anxious emotional bond marked by both a desire to be with a parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited
What is insecure disorganized/disoriented attachment?
The type of attachment indicated by the infant's confusion when the mother leaves and returns in the Ainsworth strange situation procedure. The infant acts disoriented, seems overwhelmed by the situation, and does not demonstrate a consistent way of coping with it.
What is attachment in relation to development? What does it affect?
physical, cognitive, motor, emotional
What is RAD?
Reactive attachment disorder a trauma-related disorder characterized by inhibited, avoidant social behaviors and reluctance to seek or respond to attention or nurturing
What are the Salient points of the reiss and Neiderheisser study?
- Some genetic influences are expressed early in development others are expressed later
- Favorable and unfavorable environment can change gene expression
- Genetic influences are very malleable and responsive to the social environment
What is epigenetics?
an emerging area of scientific research that shows how environmental factors influence children's experiences actually affect the expression of their genes
What are the three genotype-environment correlations called?
- 1. passive genotype-environment correlation
- 2. evocative (reactive) genotype
- 3. Active (selective) genotype
What is the passive genotype-environment correlation? and what is the issue?
- association between the genotype a child imherits from his or her parents and the environment in which the child is raised.
- Here we cannot determine what determines child's behavior if it is genetic or rearing process bc of the confound variable of parents providing both the environment and the genes.
What is the evocative (reactive) genotype environmental correlation?
- association between the individual's genetically influenced behavior and other's reactions to that behavior.
- ex. happier babies receive more social stimulation than passive infants
what is active (selective) genotype-environment correlation?
- the association between an individuals genetic propensities and the environmental niches that individual selects
- selecting people and groups based on environments we find compatible with ours
- niche picking