Chapter 5 Toward a Psychology of Stress

  1. Instinctual Tension
    A Freudian term used to highlight the tension between the mind's impulses and the body's response, suggesting that stress is humanly inherent.
  2. Ego
    A term coined by Freud naming the part of the psyche that not only triggers the stress response when threatened, but also defends against all enemies, including thoughts and feelings generated from within.
  3. Defense Mechanisms
    Described by Sigmund Freud;unconscious thinking patterns of the ego to either decrease pain or increase pleasure.
  4. Denial
    One of the primary defense mechanisms noted by Freud in which one disbelieves what occurred when personally threatened.
  5. Repression
    The involuntary removal of thoughts, memories, and feelings from the conscious mind so they are less threatening to the ego.
  6. Projection
    The act of attributing one's thoughts and feelings to other people so that they are less threatening to the ego.
  7. Rationalization
    The reinterpretation of the current reality to match one's liking; a reinterpretation of the truth.
  8. Displacement
    The transference of emotional pain (usually anger) from a threatening source (one's boss) to a nonthreatening source (one's cat).
  9. Humor
    The defense mechanism noted by Freud that both decreases pain and increases pleasure.
  10. Individuation
    A term coined by Carl Jung to describe self-realization, a process leading to wholeness
  11. Personal unconscious
    A repository of personal thoughts, perceptions, feelings, and memories
  12. Collective Unconscious
    A term coined by psychologist Carl Jung; the deepest level of unconsciousness, which connects all people together as one; divine consciousness
  13. Psychic equilibrium
    A term coined by Carl Jung to describe the balance of thought (and subsequent health-wholeness) between the conscious and unconscious minds, by having the conscious mind become multilingual to the many languages of the unconscious mind (e.g., dream interpretation).
  14. Active imagination
    A term coined by Carl Jung describing a mental imagery process where, in a lucid dream state or relaxed state, you consciously imagine (and resolve) the end of a recurring dream.  Active imagination is a form of visualization.
  15. Social Readjustment Rating Scale
    An inventory of life events that may be perceived to be stressful; used to determine one's level of stress.
  16. Stages of grieving
    A process outlined by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross regarding the mental preparation for death, including denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.
  17. Adaptation
    A behavior and attitude considered the epitome of the acceptance stage of grieving, where a person adapts to the new situation and no longer views him- or herself a victim.
  18. Logotherapy
    A term coined by psychiatrist Viktor Frankl describing the search for meaning of one's life.
  19. Tragic Optimisim
    A term coined by psychiatrist Viktor Frankl to explain the mindset of someone who can find value and meaning in the worst situation.
  20. Noo-dynamics
    A term coined by Viktor Frankl describing a state of tension, a spiritual dynamic, that motivates one to find meaning in life.  The absence of noo-dynamics is an existential vacuum.
  21. Leftover guilt
    A term coined by psychologist Wayne Dyer explaining the ill effects of unresolved guilt left over from an early childhood experience.
  22. Self-imposed guilt
    A term coined by psychologist Wayne Dyer to describe the guilt one places on oneself when a personal value has been compromised or violated.

    Examples are missing church on Sunday or saying yes to something because it seemed like the right thing to say, then later regretting having agreed to it because you were never committed to it.
  23. Love
    The emotion studied and advocated by Leo Buscaglia as being the cornerstone to self-esteem and ultimately altruism.
  24. Self-esteem
    The sense of underpinning self-values, self-acceptance, and self-love; thought to be a powerful buffer against perceived threats.
  25. X-factor
    A term coined by psychologist Leo Buscaglia to describe that special quality that makes each one of us unique.  By focusing on our X-factor and not our faults and foibles, we enhance our self-esteem.
  26. Theory of motivation
    Maslow's theory associated with personality and behavior, based on his theory of hierarchy of needs.
  27. Hierarchy of needs
    Maslow's concept of a stair-step approach of consciousness (thoughts and behaviors), ranging from physiological needs to self-transcendence.
  28. transcendent
    going beyond ordinary limits; surpassing; exceeding.
  29. Self-actualization
    The fifth level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs where one experiences a sense of personal fulfillment.
  30. Self-transcendence
    The sixth and highest state of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, where one offers oneself altruistically to the service of others.  Mother Teresa, Jane Goodall, Jimmy Carter, and Desmond Tutu serve as examples of this stage.
  31. Mystical (peak) sensation
    A euphoric experience during which one feels a divine or spiritual connection with all life.
  32. Meta-disease
    A concept by Maslow that depicts origins of physical disease as being based on unresolved emotional issues.
  33. Positive psychology
    A field of modern psychology that focuses on three aspects: (1) positive emotions, (2) positive personality traits, and (3) positive institutions.
  34. Desires
    In the Buddhist perspective of stress, desires are conditions and expectations that are associated with goals.  Desires with attachments cause stress.
  35. Self, the (two versions, Tibetan psychology)
    The Self is the higher self or the true self; the self is identified as the false self or the ego-driven self.
Card Set
Chapter 5 Toward a Psychology of Stress
Toward a Psychology of Stress