Psychology of Personality Unit Exam #1

  1. argued that people evolved from a more primitive species (primates). Theory of evolution - 1859
    Charles Darwin
  2. the scientific study of the psychological forces that make people uniquely themselves.
    Personality Psychology
  3. The use of systematically gathered evidence to test theories
    Scientific Inference
  4. A mathematical index of the degree of agreement or association between two measures
    Correlation Coefficient
  5. An approach to psychology in which the conclusion follows logically from the premises orImage Upload 1
    Deductive Approach
  6. An approach to psychology in which observations are systematically collected and concepts areImage Upload 2
    Inductive Approach
  7. Seeking to formulate laws (full population laws of personality)
  8. Involved in the detailed study of individuals cases
  9. The tendency to believe in the accuracy of vague generalities about one's personality
    Barnum Effect
  10. What are the eight perspectives of personality
    Behavioral, Biological, Cognitive, Humanistic, Neo-analytic, Person-situation interaction, Psychoanalytic, Trait
  11. Is one of the perspectives of personality right?
    It depends on the person being assessed, the assessor, and the purpose of the assessment.
  12. what is the brief history of how personality psychology has developed?
    1850s-80s:  Charles Darwin publishes Origin of Species by means of natural selection. 1859:  CD- Theory of evolution

    1860s-1880s:  Francis Galton beginning of biological study of individual differences, launches eugenics movement

    1940s-60s:  Studies of temperament and individual constitution begins

    1960s-70s:  Hans Eysenck proposes brain-based model of personality

    1980s:  Studies of effects on the brain of drug abuse, pollution and genetic diseases begin in earnest

    1990s:  Evolutionary personality psychology takes root, as evolved predispositions towards sex, love, hate, jealousy, and aggression are studied.

    2000s:  Personality psychology begins serious study of the genetic bases of individual behavioral patterns
  13. Measurement that is not dependent on the individual making the assessment.
    Objective Assessment
  14. Measurement that relies on interpretation by the individual making the assessment.
    Subjective Assessment
  15. The consistency of score that are expected to be the same.
  16. The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to be measuring.
  17. The extent to which a test truly measures a theoretical construct.
    Construct Validity
  18. A bias responding to test items that is unrelated to the personality characteristic being measured.
    Response Set
  19. (Self-Report Test) Pencil and paper tests, (most common type of test)

    EX:  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality, Inventory (MMPI), Big-Five Inventory (BFI), Affective Communication Test (ACT), Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
    Self Report Measures
  20. Assumes that the nervous system is an important element of personality

    Ex:  (EEG) Electroencephalogram and can provide (ERPS) event-related potentials, (PET) positron emission tomography scan, (MRI) Magnetic resonance imagery, (fMRI) functional magnetic resonance imagery, hormonal levels, chromosomal analysis.
    Biological Measures
  21. Records the actual behavior of the person> types> Simple counts of a specific behavior, coding videotaped interactions, electronic pagers
    Behavioral Observations
  22. typically yield rich information, but validity is questionable
    Unstructured Interview
  23. the analysis of how people stand, move, speak, etc > Expressive style is a term used to describe nonverbal social skills such as vocal characteristics, facial expressions, body gestures, and movements > to include the examination of:  speech rate, the voice quality, gaze patterns, posture, gestures
    Expressive Behavior
  24. (Life Stories) involves the careful analysis of the writings such as letters and diaries, rich source of information.

    Ex:  (Allport's "Letter from Jenny" /  Terman's analysis of Galton's letter)
    Document Analysis
  25. present an unstructured or ambiguous stimulus, task, or situation

    Test taker provides an interpretation > The goal is to gain access to the unconscious motives and concerns

    Ex: draw-a-person test, Rorschach inkblot, thematic apperception test (TET)
    Projective Tests
  26. A research method that involves an in-depth analysis of a single individual
    Case Study
  27. A study in which the degree of relationship between two variables (or multiple variables) is assessed.
    Correlational Study
  28. a study that assigns participants to a treatment group or a control group to test the independent variable.
    Experimental Study
  29. For the different types of tests (self-report, projective, biological measures), be able to list at least 2 different types.
    • Self Report:  Affective Communication Test (ACT), Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
    • Projective:  draw-a-person, Rorschach inkblot

    Biological:  (PET) positron emission tomography scan, (MRI) Magnetic resonance imagery scan
  30. Be able to explain ethnic and gender bias and why it is important to be aware of potential biases when examining test results.
    can fail to take relevant culture or subculture of a person into account, which can cause a cultural strength to be perceived as a weakness. (conscious/unconscious)
  31. when a test fails to take the relevant gender of a person being tested into account, in which case it may be useful for looking at differences WITHIN genders
    Gender Bias:
  32. Reverse-code some items, use natural wording, include lie scales, use several different methods of assessment
    Be able to list a few methods of reducing the problems of response sets.
  33. Father of Psychoanalysis. Revolutionized the study of dreams. Known for: Oedipus complex /a boy's sexual feelings for mother, and That girls had penis envy (referred to by others as the Electra complex).
    Sigmund Freud
  34. (Aspects of personality) Sigmund Freud's basic approach to understanding personality
  35. Process where a person is induced into a trance state where a therapist can gain access to the unconscious processes of the mind.
  36. A method used in psychoanalysis in which an individual reports everything that comes into awareness.
    Free Association
  37. The portion of the mind that is not accessible to conscious thought.
  38. contains the primitive drives and emotions, with pleasure as the principle of operation.
  39. balances the Id, super-ego, and reality, with reality as the principle of operation. Deals with the real world.
  40. internalized social norms, with morality as the principle of operation.
  41. The development of the psyche, Freud's primary focus of the libido is on each stage which serves as a source of pleasure.
    Psychosexual Stages
  42. What are the 5 psychosexual stages and ranges?
    Oral stage - (mouth) birth-1yr

    Anal stage - (bowel & bladder control) 1-3yrs

    Phallic stage - (genitals) 3-6yrs

    Latent stage - (Sexual feelings are inactive) 6-puberty (sexual feelings inactive)

    Genital Stage - (Maturing Sexual Interest) Puberty to death (libido becomes active and sexual interest in opposite sex begins)
  43. Defense Mechanisms (be able to recognize all of them and to define at least three)
    see next cards
  44. Pushes threatening thoughts and ideas into the unconscious (PTSD)
  45. Hides threatening impulses by over-emphasizing their opposites (homophobes are closet homosexuals)
    Reaction formation
  46. Refusal to acknowledge anxiety-provoking stimuli (sees terrible fight w/ spouse as a "lovers' quarrel")
  47. attributing anxiety-provoking impulses or thoughts on others (judging other for behavior you judge yourself for
  48. Shifting one's unconscious aggression or fears to a safer target(person)

    (dad yells at son, son upset, kicks dog)
  49. Dangerous urges are transformed into positive, socially meaningful motivations (drug addict stops using and focuses on writing music)
  50. Protecting the individual by returning to an earlier "safer" time of life (a child with new sibling wanting a baby bottle again)
  51. Creating logical, socially acceptable explanations for behaviors which were actually driven by unconscious impulses (lying then claiming the lie was to protect feelings of another person)
  52. (Freud's approach to understanding human behavior; Freud's psychotherapeutic
  53. The operating principle of the ID to satisfy pleasure and reduce inner tension.
    Pleasure Principle
  54. explicit & implicit
    types of memory
Card Set
Psychology of Personality Unit Exam #1
CSUSM Psych 334 exam 1