BIO 41 CHAP 1 Questions

  1. BODY OF KNOWLEDGE about Natural world & Evidence-based process for acquiring knowledge
  2. the scientific study of life
  3. the practical application of scientific techniques and principles
  4. Scientific way of looking at the world is--
    strives for objectivity
    Evidence over all other ways of discovering the truth
    Scientific Thinking
  5. using the services of the online community to create content and solve problems
  6. Observable universe around us
    Natural World
  7. Direct & repeatable observation of any aspect of natural world
    Scientific Fact:
  8. Hypothesis – idea is one of MANY explanations, whereas Scientific Theory….
    is major explanation about natural world that has been CONFIRMED through extensive testing in diverse ways by independent researchers
  9. Steps of Scientific Method
    • Observation - Record of any object/phenomenon, investigation, description, measurement
    • Question - Curiosity regarding Observation
    • Hypothesis - Tentative explanation/Educated guess of observation
    • Experiment - Test validity of Hypothesis; involved measurements
    • ----Hypothesis can never be PROVEN, but is either Supported or Refuted; If neither, Inconclusive
  10. Common objective of scientific method:
    Determines whether there is relationship between variables
  11. 3 Important Scientific Principles
    • subject to challenge & revision
    • Results must be reproducible
    • Scientific claim must be falsifiable; open to being proven wrong
  12. the practice of using arguments that sound vaguely scientific without using the scientific method
  13. any aspect of nature that is capable of changing
  14. seeks to commercialize knowledge gained from basic research (Ex. New drugs
    Applied Research
  15. What CHARACTERISTICS of process of science set it apart from other ways of knowing?
    • Evidence
    • Objectivity policed thru peer review
  16. What MECHANISMS help bring OBJECTIVITY to the process of science?
    • Repeatability
    • Requirement for peer-reviewed publication
  17. Independent Variable I.V. (Manipulated Variable):
    • Manipulated SINGLE Variable
    • **INdependent, INvestigator manipulates
  18. Dependent Variable D.V. (Responding Variable):
    Any Variable that RESPONDS/POTENTIALLY RESPONDS to changes in Independent Variable
  19. In an Experiment, _______ is an unvaried group/sample
  20. 2 or + aspects of natural world behave in interrelated manner --- If we know value of one variable, we can predict particular value for other variable
  21. Correlation that is doubtful, inaccurate, or false --- crowing rooster & daybreak
    Spurious Correlation
  22. they cannot prove that change in one variable CAUSES change in other; Experiments are GOLD STANDARD for this
  23. Researcher measures value of dependent variable for at least 2 groups of study subjects; both comparable except one is exposed to change of I.V. , while other group is not
    Controlled Experiment:
  24. Group that is maintained under standard set of conditions with NO CHANGE in I.V.
    Ex: Don’t alter diet for results
    Control Group
  25. Group that's maintained under same standard, except is manipulated in way that CHANGES I.V.
    Ex: Alter diet for results like taking 900 mg of fish oils daily
    ---RESULT: Treatment group got FEWER heart disease deaths
    **Potential Drawback = Placebo!!!
    Treatment (Experimental) group
  26. study subjects do NOT KNOW whether they belong to the control group or the treatment group
    Single-Blind Experiment
  27. BOTH study subjects/researchers do NOT KNOW which participants are receiving treatment & which are controls.
    Double-Blind Experiment
  28. Maintain constant internal environment
  29. single-cell product of sexual reproduction from fertilization
  30. zygote dividing to produce juvenile offspring => adult
    Development process
  31. multiply themselves without involvement of specialized reproductive cells like sperm & eggs
    Asexual reproduction
  32. The capture, storage, & use of energy by living organisms
  33. Organisms that obtain metabolic energy form nonliving parts of environment; Plants, Algae, Certain Bacteria
  34. Organisms that acquire food from living part of their environment; They eat producers, or other consumers that feed on producers; Ex: Animals
  35. In biology, sensing & responding to external cues/environment
  36. process by which humans cause evolutionary change in other organisms; dogs & horses
    Artificial Selection
  37. change in overall genetic characteristics of a GROUP of organisms over the generations, from parents to offspring; size, color, running speed, maternal care
    Biological Evolution
  38. all individuals that can interbreed in their natural surroundings to produce fertile offspring; 
    Two evolved species can be descendants of common ancestor
  39. group of individuals of particular species that share common habitat
  40. Much LARGER Group; (Ex: Phylum Chordata, all animals with backbone)
  41. Very Large Grouping (Ex: mammals)
  42. Larger grouping, Ex: all animals with 2 even hooves (pigs, cattle, etc.)
  43. considered in context of a larger group (Antilocapridae)
  44. evolutionary mechanism that changes overall genetic composition of population from one generation to next by favoring survival & reproduction of individuals best suited to their environment
    Natural Selection
  45. good match between population & particular habitat
  46. What are the 3 Domains of Life?
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
  47. 4 Main Kingdoms of Eukarya
    • Animalia
    • Fungi
    • Protista
    • Plantae
  48. Linear concept map for visualizing breadth & scope of life, from smallest structures that are meaningful in biology to broadest interactions between living & nonliving systems that we can comprehend
    Biological Hierarchy
  49. List the 12 structures/systems in the Biological Hierarchy
    • 1. Atoms
    • 2. Molecule - Biomolecules
    • 3. Cell
    • 4. Tissue
    • 5. Organs
    • 6. Organ System - Digestive, Nervous System
    • 7. Individual/Organism
    • 8. Population - Where part. species resides
    • 9. Community - Popul. of diff species residing in shared environment
    • 10. Ecosystem
    • 11. Biome - Coral Reefs
    • 12. Biosphere - Earth
  50. Why is skepticism considered desirable in scientific community?
    Considered to be healthy characteristic which forces participants to be extra careful with multiple experiment attempts to develop confirmed result.
  51. True or False: The only way in which hypotheses can be tested is by designing & conducting an experiment.
    False; Scientists routinely use OBSERVATION to test Hypotheses, as well.
  52. Whether scientists use observations or experimentation or BOTH, the MOST important outcome that forms the basis for conclusions is _______.
  53. The theory of biological evolution is the unifying ______ for the biological sciences. The mechanism for biological evolution is called _______  _________, which leads to advantageous traits known as ________. This mechanism results in changes in the overall _______ composition of __________.
    • theory
    • natural selection
    • adaptations
    • genetic
    • populations
  54. True or False: Science consists solely of knowledge about natural world.
    False; It's a body of knowledge, but it's ALSO the process scientists use to generate this knowledge.
  55. Why are only events that are observed repeatedly considered to be in the realm of science?
    Anything to which the scientific method can be applied to, now or in the future, is or will be science. Anything that CANNOT be applied to scientific method is NOT science
  56. living things obey same physical laws as everything else in the universe
Card Set
BIO 41 CHAP 1 Questions
BIO 41 CHAP 1 Questions