BODY OF KNOWLEDGE about Natural world & Evidence-based process for acquiring knowledge
the scientific study of life
the practical application of scientific techniques and principles
Scientific way of looking at the world is--
strives for objectivity
Evidence over all other ways of discovering the truth
using the services of the online community to create content and solve problems
Observable universe around us
Direct & repeatable observation of any aspect of natural world
Hypothesis – idea is one of MANY explanations, whereas Scientific Theory….
is major explanation about natural world that has been CONFIRMED through extensive testing in diverse ways by independent researchers
Steps of Scientific Method
Observation - Record of any object/phenomenon, investigation, description, measurement
Question - Curiosity regarding Observation
Hypothesis - Tentative explanation/Educated guess of observation
Experiment - Test validity of Hypothesis; involved measurements
----Hypothesis can never bePROVEN, but is either Supported or Refuted; If neither, Inconclusive
Common objective of scientific method:
Determines whether there is relationship between variables
3 Important Scientific Principles
subject to challenge & revision
Results must be reproducible
Scientific claim must be falsifiable; open to being proven wrong
the practice of using arguments that sound vaguely scientific without using the scientific method
any aspect of nature that is capable of changing
seeks to commercialize knowledge gained from basic research (Ex. New drugs
What CHARACTERISTICS of process of science set it apart from other ways of knowing?
Objectivity policed thru peer review
What MECHANISMS help bring OBJECTIVITY to the process of science?
Requirement for peer-reviewed publication
Independent Variable I.V. (Manipulated Variable):
Manipulated SINGLE Variable
**INdependent, INvestigator manipulates
Dependent Variable D.V. (Responding Variable):
Any Variable that RESPONDS/POTENTIALLY RESPONDS to changes in Independent Variable
In an Experiment, _______ is an unvaried group/sample
2 or + aspects of natural world behave in interrelated manner --- If we know value of one variable, we can predict particular value for other variable
Correlation that is doubtful, inaccurate, or false --- crowing rooster & daybreak
they cannot prove that change in one variable CAUSES change in other; Experiments are GOLD STANDARD for this
Researcher measures value of dependent variable for at least 2 groups of study subjects; both comparable except one is exposed to change of I.V. , while other group is not
Group that is maintained under standard set of conditions with NO CHANGE in I.V.
Ex: Don’t alter diet for results
Group that's maintained under same standard, except is manipulated in way that CHANGES I.V.
Ex: Alter diet for results like taking 900 mg of fish oils daily
---RESULT: Treatment group got FEWER heart disease deaths
**Potential Drawback = Placebo!!!
Treatment (Experimental) group
study subjects do NOT KNOW whether they belong to the control group or the treatment group
BOTH study subjects/researchers do NOT KNOW which participants are receiving treatment & which are controls.
Maintain constant internal environment
single-cell product of sexual reproduction from fertilization
zygote dividing to produce juvenile offspring => adult
multiply themselves without involvement of specialized reproductive cells like sperm & eggs
The capture, storage, & use of energy by living organisms
Organisms that obtain metabolic energy form nonliving parts of environment; Plants, Algae, Certain Bacteria
Organisms that acquire food from living part of their environment; They eat producers, or other consumers that feed on producers; Ex: Animals
In biology, sensing & responding to external cues/environment
process by which humans cause evolutionary change in other organisms; dogs & horses
change in overall genetic characteristics of a GROUP of organisms over the generations, from parents to offspring; size, color, running speed, maternal care
all individuals that can interbreed in their natural surroundings to produce fertile offspring;
Two evolved species can be descendants of common ancestor
group of individuals of particular species that share common habitat
Much LARGER Group; (Ex: Phylum Chordata, all animals with backbone)
Very Large Grouping (Ex: mammals)
Larger grouping, Ex: all animals with 2 even hooves (pigs, cattle, etc.)
considered in context of a larger group (Antilocapridae)
evolutionary mechanism that changes overall genetic composition of population from one generation to next by favoring survival & reproduction of individuals best suited to their environment
good match between population & particular habitat
What are the 3 Domains of Life?
4 Main Kingdoms of Eukarya
Linear concept map for visualizing breadth & scope of life, from smallest structures that are meaningful in biology to broadest interactions between living & nonliving systems that we can comprehend
List the 12 structures/systems in the Biological Hierarchy
2. Molecule - Biomolecules
6. Organ System - Digestive, Nervous System
8. Population - Where part. species resides
9. Community - Popul. of diff species residing in shared environment
11. Biome - Coral Reefs
12. Biosphere - Earth
Why is skepticism considered desirable in scientific community?
Considered to be healthy characteristic which forces participants to be extra careful with multiple experiment attempts to develop confirmed result.
True or False: The only way in which hypotheses can be tested is by designing & conducting an experiment.
False; Scientists routinely use OBSERVATION to test Hypotheses, as well.
Whether scientists use observations or experimentation or BOTH, the MOST important outcome that forms the basis for conclusions is _______.
The theory of biological evolution is the unifying ______ for the biological sciences. The mechanism for biological evolution is called _______ _________, which leads to advantageous traits known as ________. This mechanism results in changes in the overall _______ composition of __________.
True or False: Science consists solely of knowledge about natural world.
False; It's a body of knowledge, but it's ALSO the process scientists use to generate this knowledge.
Why are only events that are observed repeatedly considered to be in the realm of science?
Anything to which the scientific method can be applied to, now or in the future, is or will be science. Anything that CANNOT be applied to scientific method is NOT science
living things obey same physical laws as everything else in the universe