BIO 41 CHAP 2 Questions

  1. Biologically important molecules built on framework of covalently linked carbon atoms associated with hydrogen.
  2. 4 Biomolecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
  3. True or False: ALL Biomolecules have CARBON Atom Backbone
  4. Anything that has mass and occupies space
  5. Pure substance that has distinctive physical and chemical properties and CANNOT be broken down to other substances by ORDINARY chemical methods
  6. What is the most abundant element?
  7. 4 Most Abundant Elements in Biomolecules
    • Carbon
    • Hydrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
  8. smallest unit of an element that still has distinctive chem properties of that element
  9. They determine physical & chem properties of an element & how its atoms interact with other atoms
    3 Atomic Components
  10. List the 3 Atomic Components
    • Protons
    • Neutrons
    • Electrons - **Especially Electrons
  11. In an atom, a ______ has a positive charge while a ______has a negative charge
    • Proton
    • Electron
  12. What Atomic component has No Electric Charge?
  13. Dense central core of a single atom; Contains one or more Protons & is therefore Positively Charged
  14. “OUTER” Defined volumes of space where electrons move around
    Electron Shell
  15. As a whole, POS charge on NUCLEUS balances NEG charges of Electrons, making atoms electrically ________.
  16. the NUMBER of Protons in atom's nucleus
    Atomic #
  17. The Sum of atom’s Protons & Neutrons
    ATOMIC Mass #
  18. True or False: The MASS of an Electron is Insignificant
  19. Type of Element; atoms vary only in the number of Neutrons; have SAME atomic number, but diff atomic MASS number
    • Isotope;
    • All Isotopes have same # of Electrons, just diff. Neutrons
  20. unstable nuclei that change (decay) into simpler forms, releasing high-energy radiation in the process; Type of Isotope
  21. What are the 2 Types of Chemical Bonds?
    • Covalent Bond
    • Ionic Bond
  22. atoms share electrons to form molecules (SHARING!!!); can form between & contains at least 2 atoms; can be same or diff. types of Elements
    Covalent Bond
  23. In what case can some Covalent bonds not be equally shared?
    • If one atom has more Electronegativity;
    • Slight charges like WATER
  24. sharing of One Pair of electrons between 2 atoms
    SINGLE Covalent Bond
  25. when 2 atoms share TWO PAIRS OF ELECTRONS!
    DOUBLE Covalent BOND
  26. when 2 atoms share THREE PAIRS of Electrons!
    TRIPLE Covalent BOND
  27. width of atoms
    Atomic Radii
  28. distance between nuclei
    Bond length
  29. atoms w/ opposite electrical charge are held together by their mutual attraction (BORROWING/DONATING); they're both Equal & Opposite; whichever number is highest (Proton, Electron) that is the NET CHARGE!
    Ionic Bond
  30. atoms in electrically charged forms (WITH NET Electric CHARGE), due to loss or gain of one or more electrons
    • Ion/Process of Ionization;
    • Change: Sodium Atom ==> Sodium Ion
  31. substance in which atoms from 2 or more DIFFERENT elements are bonded together, each in precise ratio
    Chemical Compound
  32. represents atomic composition of molecules (covalent) & salts (ionic)
    Chemical Formula
  33. Atoms held together by ionic bonds – Chem Compound
  34. utermost shell; atoms that have unfilled outer shells can achieve more stable state by interacting in ways that will achieve max occupancy
    Valence Shell
  35. The more electronegative atom exerts a stronger pull on shared electrons; both ends are opposite of each other
    Polar Covalent Bond
  36. Uneven distribution of electrical charge; 
    Makes one end of the molecule SLIGHTLY neg & the opposite SLIGHTLY pos
    Polar Molecule
  37. the weak electrical attraction between a Hydrogen atom that has slight pos charge & neighboring atom w/ slight neg charge
    Hydrogen Bond
  38. Water is a Solvent for Charge/Polar Substances (Slightly charged), whereas it's NOT A Solvent for....
    Uncharged/Nonpolar Substances
  39. any combination of a solute & a solvent
    Solution (Mixture)
  40. This molecule is involved with 
    Electron Sharing which is LARGELY symmetrical; Tends to NOT dissolve; They cluster among their own kind instead (OLIVE OIL)
    Nonpolar Molecules
  41. Stable Hydrogen Bond is to Ice as Unstable Hydrogen Bond is to.....
  42. heat energy supplied to a liquid makes Gaseous state
  43. important property of water resulting from cohesiveness of water molecules; force tends to minimize surface area of water at its boundary with air
    Surface tension
  44. Process of breaking or creating chem bonds
    Chem. Reaction
  45. True or False: In a Chemical Equation, 
    Atoms move to the front of equation, while Molecules become subscript
  46. tiny number of molecules spontaneously split apart at any one time, then balance each other electrically; Happens in any volume of pure water, which produces a hydrogen ion (H+) & hydroxyl ion (OH-).
    Hydroxyl is a => Hydroxide
  47. Compound that REMOVES/ABSORBS hydrogen ions, ADDS Hydroxyl (SOAPY/BAKING SODA)
    Extremely LOW concentration of Free Hydrogen; High pH = 14
  48. Compound that ADDS/RELEASES hydrogen ions (TANGY, CITRIC); Extremely HIGH concentration of Free Hydrogen; Low pH = 0
  49. What is the Neutral pH number? (Pure Water)
  50. Substances meet need of preventing dramatic changes in internal pH by maintaining concentration of hydrogen ions within narrow limits
    Buffer System
  51. True or False: Carbon can bond to Carbon, forming long chains, branched molecules, or even rings; Can form single, double, or triple bonds
  52. Biomolecules that include at least 1 Carbon-Hydrogen bond
    Ex: Sugars & Amino Acids
    Organic Molecules
  53. Small organic molecules that link up via Covalent bonds to create larger assemblies of atoms [Macro = Large]; 
    Ex: Starch & Proteins
  54. Small molecules that serve as repeating units in macromolecule
  55. Macromolecules that Contain Monomers as building blocks [Poly = Many]
  56. Clusters of Covalently bonded atoms that have same distinctive chem properties no matter what molecule they are found in
    Functional Groups
  57. 4 Functional Groups
    • Amino Group
    • Carboxyl Group
    • Hydroxyl Group
    • Phosphate Group
  58. Molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; Monosaccharide is its monomer
  59. Simplest sugar molecules; 
    5-Carbon Sugar: (CH2O)5; 
    When dissolved in water, sugar molecules may exist in CHAIN or RING form.
  60. Monosaccharide found in almost all cells
    Key role as energy source within cell
  61. has same molecular formula as Glucose, but atoms are connected in diff pattern.; nearly twice as sweet at Glucose
    Fructose (Fruit Sugar)
  62. TWO covalently join monosaccharides
  63. Disaccharide built by linking molecule of glucose & fructose, with removing water molecule
  64. LARGER Polymers built by linking many monosaccharides
  65. Type of Polysaccharide bundled into strong parallel fibers that help support plant body/walls
  66. Polysaccharide that serves as energy storage molecule inside plant cells
  67. Main Storage Polysaccharide in animal cells
  68. What are the 4 Functions of Proteins?
    • Storage - Supply Building Blocks for Offspring growth
    • Structure - Formed anatomical structures
    • Transport - Moves nutrients & other materials within body
    • Catalysis - (Catalysts)
  69. May contain hundreds to thousands of amino acids
    Peptide Bond
  70. The Cooking of eggs involves Destruction of protein’s three-dimensional structure, resulting in loss of protein activity. What process is this?
  71. Hydrophobic (nonpolar) biomolecules built from chains or rings of Hydrocarbon (Hydrogen & Carbon Atoms); Efficient Storage Reserves; Ex: Fatty Acids, Glycerides, Sterols, Wax
  72. most common Glyceride in our diet; Lipid
    Triglycerides (Fats):
  73. Glyceride molecules consisting of 2 Fatty Acids joined to glycrol that bears PHOSPHATE Group
  74. All Phosopholipids have ______"Head" with Neg. Charge Phosphate Group & All have _______"Tails" with 2 Long Fatty Acid Chains
    • Hydrophilic
    • Hydrophobic
  75. Lipids; have 4 hydrocarbon rings fused to each other
    Sterols (Steroids):
  76. Small organic molecule with 3 chemical components: 1.Nitrogenous base Covalently bonded to => 5-Carbon Sugar Covalently bonded to => Phosphate Group: CONSISTS of 1 Phosphate & 4 Oxygen atoms
  77. 2 Functions of Nucleotides
    • Genetic Info Storage
    • Energy Transfer
  78. 5 Diff. Nucleotides (Bases)
    • Adenine
    • Cytosine
    • Guanine
    • Thymine – Found ONLY in DNA
    • Uracil – Found ONLY in RNA
  79. True or False: Nucleic Acids are a class of Monomers
    False; Polymers
  80. True or False: ATP is a type of Nucleotide
  81. Has Deoxyribose Sugar (1 more Oxygen atom); 2 Polynucleotide chains
  82. Has Ribose Sugar;
    Single Polynucleotide chain
  83. Our physical world is composed of _______, which is known in any substance that has mass and takes up space. 92 diff. types of substances, known as _______, occur naturally on Earth. These substances differ in regard to their physical & chem. properties. Smallest unit that exhibits these physical & chem. properties is the ______.
    • matter
    • elements
    • atom
  84. A ______ bond is the result of an attraction between atoms with SAME electrical charges.
  85. A _______ bond is the result of an attraction between atoms with opposite electrical charges.
  86. Water is considered to be a ______ molecule because of the uneven distribution of electrical charges in the molecule. The hydrogen atoms in water carry slightly ______ charge, whereas the oxygen atom carries a slightly ______ charge.
    • polar
    • positive
    • negative
  87. What goes first in a chemical equation: the REACTANT or the PRODUCT?
  88. The concentration of Hydrogen Ions in a Solution is the measure of what?
  89. High pH Solutions have ____ Hydrogen ion Concentration, whereas Low pH Solutions have _____ Hydrogen Ion Concentration.
    • High -- High pH is Basic
    • Low -- Low pH is Acidic
  90. Amino Acids are the Monomers for what?
  91. Monosaccharides are the Monomers for what?
  92. Are Nucleic Acids a Polymer or Monomer?
    Polymer; Made up of Monomers called Nucleotides
  93. Nucleotides are the Monomers for what?
    Nucleic Acid
  94. Which Level of Organization/Structure for Proteins involves Sequence of amino acids in Polypeptide structure?
    Primary Level; Polypeptide cannot function as Protein at this level
  95. Which Level of Organization/Structure for Proteins creates Local Folding of amino acid chain into specific three-dimensional patterns?
  96. Which Level of Organization/Structure for Proteins has VERY Specific three-dimensional shape which is Not merely thru patterns of folding, BUT Attained thru interactions between distantly placed segments of polypeptide chain?
  97. Which Level of Organization/Structure for Proteins involves Hydrogen Bonds, Ionic Bonds, Hydrophobic Interactions, & Covalent Bonds?
    Tertiary Level
  98. Which Level of Organization/Structure for Proteins involves Some proteins that are composed of more than one polypeptide?
    Quaternary Level
  99. When is an atom most likely to form a Covalent bond?
    When outer Electron Shell of atom is not filled to capacity with Electrons
  100. How many hydrogen bonds can a single water molecule form?
    • 4 Hydrogen Bonds
    • This is due to its bent shape & presence of 2 Hydrogen atoms per molecule
  101. Which elements are found in all Carbohydrates?
    • Carbon, Hydrogen, & Oxygen
    • **CHO!
  102. True or False: The bonds between numerous Carbon atoms that make up Lipids can store large amounts of energy.
  103. This Protein accelerates chemical reactions
  104. True or False: Hormones, such as estrogen & testosterone, are formed from a type of Lipid known as Sterol.
  105. Biomolecules are the building blocks of _____.
  106. What phenomenas occur as a result of Hydrogen Bonding?
    • Water is a Solvent
    • Ice Floats
    • Surface Tension
    • Water Moderates Temp Swings
  107. The _____ bond between amino acids is formed by a ______ reaction. A Polymer of amino acids must be folded into the proper three-dimensional structure to form a functional ______.
    • Peptide
    • Dehydration
    • Protein
  108. Why does water float?
    Because it's less dense; act like insulating blanket
Card Set
BIO 41 CHAP 2 Questions
BIO 41 CHAP 2 Questions