Biologically important molecules built on framework of covalently linked carbon atoms associated with hydrogen.
True or False: ALL Biomolecules have CARBON Atom Backbone
Anything that has mass and occupies space
Pure substance that has distinctive physical and chemical properties and CANNOT be broken down to other substances by ORDINARY chemical methods
What is the most abundant element?
4 Most Abundant Elements in Biomolecules
smallest unit of an element that still has distinctive chem properties of that element
They determine physical & chem properties of an element & how its atoms interact with other atoms
3 Atomic Components
List the 3 Atomic Components
Electrons - **Especially Electrons
In an atom, a ______ has a positive charge while a ______has a negative charge
What Atomic component has No Electric Charge?
Dense central core of a single atom; Contains one or more Protons & is therefore Positively Charged
“OUTER” Defined volumes of space where electrons move around
As a whole, POS charge on NUCLEUS balances NEG charges of Electrons, making atoms electrically ________.
the NUMBER of Protons in atom's nucleus
The Sum of atom’s Protons & Neutrons
ATOMIC Mass #
True or False: The MASS of an Electron is Insignificant
Type of Element; atoms vary only in the number of Neutrons; have SAME atomic number, but diff atomic MASS number
All Isotopes have same # of Electrons, just diff. Neutrons
unstable nuclei that change (decay) into simpler forms, releasing high-energy radiation in the process; Type of Isotope
What are the 2 Types of Chemical Bonds?
atoms share electrons to form molecules (SHARING!!!); can form between & contains at least 2 atoms; can be same or diff. types of Elements
In what case can some Covalent bonds not be equally shared?
If one atom has more Electronegativity;
Slight charges like WATER
sharing of One Pair of electrons between 2 atoms
SINGLE Covalent Bond
when 2 atoms share TWO PAIRS OF ELECTRONS!
DOUBLE Covalent BOND
when 2 atoms share THREE PAIRS of Electrons!
TRIPLE Covalent BOND
width of atoms
distance between nuclei
atoms w/ opposite electrical charge are held together by their mutual attraction (BORROWING/DONATING); they're both Equal & Opposite; whichever number is highest (Proton, Electron) that is the NET CHARGE!
atoms in electrically charged forms (WITH NET Electric CHARGE), due to loss or gain of one or more electrons
Ion/Process of Ionization;
Change: Sodium Atom ==> Sodium Ion
substance in which atoms from 2 or more DIFFERENT elements are bonded together, each in precise ratio
represents atomic composition of molecules (covalent) & salts (ionic)
Atoms held together by ionic bonds – Chem Compound
utermost shell; atoms that have unfilled outer shells can achieve more stable state by interacting in ways that will achieve max occupancy
The more electronegative atom exerts a stronger pull on shared electrons; both ends are opposite of each other
Polar Covalent Bond
Uneven distribution of electrical charge;
Makes one end of the molecule SLIGHTLY neg & the opposite SLIGHTLY pos
the weak electrical attraction between a Hydrogen atom that has slight pos charge & neighboring atom w/ slight neg charge
Water is a Solvent for Charge/Polar Substances (Slightly charged), whereas it's NOT A Solvent for....
any combination of a solute & a solvent
This molecule is involved with
Electron Sharing which is LARGELY symmetrical; Tends to NOT dissolve; They cluster among their own kind instead (OLIVE OIL)
Stable Hydrogen Bond is to Ice as Unstable Hydrogen Bond is to.....
heat energy supplied to a liquid makes Gaseous state
important property of water resulting from cohesiveness of water molecules; force tends to minimize surface area of water at its boundary with air
Process of breaking or creating chem bonds
True or False: In a Chemical Equation,
Atoms move to the front of equation, while Molecules become subscript
tiny number of molecules spontaneously split apart at any one time, then balance each other electrically; Happens in any volume of pure water, which produces a hydrogen ion (H+) & hydroxyl ion (OH-).
Hydroxyl is a => Hydroxide
Compound that REMOVES/ABSORBS hydrogen ions, ADDS Hydroxyl (SOAPY/BAKING SODA)
Extremely LOW concentration of Free Hydrogen; High pH = 14
Compound that ADDS/RELEASES hydrogen ions (TANGY, CITRIC); Extremely HIGH concentration of Free Hydrogen; Low pH = 0
What is the Neutral pH number? (Pure Water)
Substances meet need of preventing dramatic changes in internal pH by maintaining concentration of hydrogen ions within narrow limits
True or False: Carbon can bond to Carbon, forming long chains, branched molecules, or even rings; Can form single, double, or triple bonds
Biomolecules that include at least 1 Carbon-Hydrogen bond
Ex: Sugars & Amino Acids
Small organic molecules that link up via Covalent bonds to create larger assemblies of atoms [Macro = Large];
Ex: Starch & Proteins
Small molecules that serve as repeating units in macromolecule
Macromolecules that Contain Monomers as building blocks [Poly = Many]
Clusters of Covalently bonded atoms that have same distinctive chem properties no matter what molecule they are found in
4 Functional Groups
Molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; Monosaccharide is its monomer
Simplest sugar molecules;
5-Carbon Sugar: (CH2O)5;
When dissolved in water, sugar molecules may exist in CHAIN or RING form.
Monosaccharide found in almost all cells
Key role as energy source within cell
has same molecular formula as Glucose, but atoms are connected in diff pattern.; nearly twice as sweet at Glucose
Fructose (Fruit Sugar)
TWO covalently join monosaccharides
Disaccharide built by linking molecule of glucose & fructose, with removing water molecule
LARGER Polymers built by linking many monosaccharides
Type of Polysaccharide bundled into strong parallel fibers that help support plant body/walls
Polysaccharide that serves as energy storage molecule inside plant cells
Main Storage Polysaccharide in animal cells
What are the 4 Functions of Proteins?
Storage - Supply Building Blocks for Offspring growth
Structure - Formed anatomical structures
Transport - Moves nutrients & other materials within body
Catalysis - (Catalysts)
May contain hundreds to thousands of amino acids
The Cooking of eggs involves Destruction of protein’s three-dimensional structure, resulting in loss of protein activity. What process is this?
Hydrophobic (nonpolar) biomolecules built from chains or rings of Hydrocarbon (Hydrogen & Carbon Atoms); Efficient Storage Reserves; Ex: Fatty Acids, Glycerides, Sterols, Wax
most common Glyceride in our diet; Lipid
Glyceride molecules consisting of 2 Fatty Acids joined to glycrol that bears PHOSPHATE Group
All Phosopholipids have ______"Head" with Neg. Charge Phosphate Group & All have _______"Tails" with 2 Long Fatty Acid Chains
Lipids; have 4 hydrocarbon rings fused to each other
Small organic molecule with 3 chemical components: 1.Nitrogenous base Covalently bonded to => 5-Carbon Sugar Covalently bonded to => Phosphate Group: CONSISTS of 1 Phosphate & 4 Oxygen atoms
2 Functions of Nucleotides
Genetic Info Storage
5 Diff. Nucleotides (Bases)
Thymine – Found ONLY in DNA
Uracil – Found ONLY in RNA
True or False: Nucleic Acids are a class of Monomers
True or False: ATP is a type of Nucleotide
Has Deoxyribose Sugar (1 more Oxygen atom); 2 Polynucleotide chains
Has Ribose Sugar;
Single Polynucleotide chain
Our physical world is composed of _______, which is known in any substance that has mass and takes up space. 92 diff. types of substances, known as _______, occur naturally on Earth. These substances differ in regard to their physical & chem. properties. Smallest unit that exhibits these physical & chem. properties is the ______.
A ______ bond is the result of an attraction between atoms with SAME electrical charges.
A _______ bond is the result of an attraction between atoms with opposite electrical charges.
Water is considered to be a ______ molecule because of the uneven distribution of electrical charges in the molecule. The hydrogen atoms in water carry slightly ______ charge, whereas the oxygen atom carries a slightly ______ charge.
What goes first in a chemical equation: the REACTANT or the PRODUCT?
REACTANT ==> PRODUCT
The concentration of Hydrogen Ions in a Solution is the measure of what?
High pH Solutions have ____ Hydrogen ion Concentration, whereas Low pH Solutions have _____ Hydrogen Ion Concentration.
High -- High pH is Basic
Low -- Low pH is Acidic
Amino Acids are the Monomers for what?
Monosaccharides are the Monomers for what?
Are Nucleic Acids a Polymer or Monomer?
Polymer; Made up of Monomers called Nucleotides
Nucleotides are the Monomers for what?
Which Level of Organization/Structure for Proteins involves Sequence of amino acids in Polypeptide structure?
Primary Level; Polypeptide cannot function as Protein at this level
Which Level of Organization/Structure for Proteins creates Local Folding of amino acid chain into specific three-dimensional patterns?
Which Level of Organization/Structure for Proteins has VERY Specific three-dimensional shape which is Not merely thru patterns of folding, BUT Attained thru interactions between distantly placed segments of polypeptide chain?
Which Level of Organization/Structure for Proteins involves Hydrogen Bonds, Ionic Bonds, Hydrophobic Interactions, & Covalent Bonds?
Which Level of Organization/Structure for Proteins involves Some proteins that are composed of more than one polypeptide?
When is an atom most likely to form a Covalent bond?
When outer Electron Shell of atom is not filled to capacity with Electrons
How many hydrogen bonds can a single water molecule form?
4 Hydrogen Bonds
This is due to its bent shape & presence of 2 Hydrogen atoms per molecule
Which elements are found in all Carbohydrates?
Carbon, Hydrogen, & Oxygen
True or False: The bonds between numerous Carbon atoms that make up Lipids can store large amounts of energy.
This Protein accelerates chemical reactions
True or False: Hormones, such as estrogen & testosterone, are formed from a type of Lipid known as Sterol.
Biomolecules are the building blocks of _____.
What phenomenas occur as a result of Hydrogen Bonding?
Water is a Solvent
Water Moderates Temp Swings
The _____ bond between amino acids is formed by a ______ reaction. A Polymer of amino acids must be folded into the proper three-dimensional structure to form a functional ______.
Why does water float?
Because it's less dense; act like insulating blanket