kaye's class notes cardiovascular system

  1. the velocity in the vena cavae is slightly ___ than the velocity in the aorta
    lower than the velocity in the aorta
  2. the pulse pressure increases slightly from the aorta to the
    small arteries the mean change very little
  3. the pulsatility is highly damped at the level of the
  4. a very rapid pressure drop across the
  5. there is still a significant pressure drop across the
  6. the pressure in the venous side are very
    low and relatively steady state
  7. low resistance results in
    very little pressure loss
  8. the amplitude of the pressure wave depends on many parameters including
    • -the left ventricular stoke volume
    • -the compliance of the aorta
    • -the peripheral resistance
    • -compliance of the arterial walls
  9. an increase in stroke volume and an increase in peripheral resistance will result in a
    higher amplitude wave
  10. an increase in the compliance of the aorta or an increase in the compliance of the arterial walls results in a
    decrease in the pressure amplitude
  11. if a larger volume is ejected a
    larger pressure waveform results
  12. the conservation of energy theorem and bernoulli's equation we know that the slight increase in radial pressure across the wall came from a
    slight decrease in the kinetic energy
  13. wave travel faster as the
    stiffness increase. the pressure wave accelerates as it travels from the aorta toward the periphery
  14. doppler waveforms, doppler spectrums, and pulse volume recordings
    do not measure pressure
  15. because of the high resistance, a significant pressure drop occurs across the arterioles with flow
    the arterioles also help to damp the pulsatile flow so that perfusion at the capillaries can be more continuous
  16. at the level of the capillaries, metabolic exchange occurs through the mechanical process of
  17. the major parameters affecting the venous subsystem are
    • -the heart's pumping action and dynamic pressure
    • -venous capacitance
    • -hydrostatic pressure
    • - calf muscle pump
    • -transthoracic and abdominal pressure
    • -venous resistance and transmural pressure
  18. venous dynamic pressure is typically about ___mmHg
  19. right atrium has a mean of _____mmHg
  20. the capacitance of the venous system serves as a
    reservoir to supply blood volume under high demand.
  21. the hydrostatic pressure is lowest at the
    top of the head
  22. hydrostatic pressure is highest at the
    feet in a standing patient
  23. the reference for hydrostatic pressure is
    the right atrium
  24. the reference results in a "negative pressure above the RA and a
    smaller effective positive pressure below the RA
  25. hydrostatic pressure will increase with
    distance (height)
  26. the calf muscle pump aids in
    venous return in the standing patient
  27. calf muscle pump mechanism consist of
    • -deep and superficial veins of the lower legs
    • -contracting leg muscles
    • -fascial compartments venous sinusoids
    • -venous valves
  28. because of low dynamic pressure venous return is affected by
  29. spectral doppler displays blood flow velocities
    over time
  30. from Bernoulli's equation the measured peak velocity can be used to
    determine pressure gradients
  31. the sharp upstroke of a normal pressure waveform represents the
    rapid rise in pressure during systole. a rapid increase in pressure should result in a rapid increase in volume
  32. the simple time mean velocity is the
    average velocity registered over a cardiac cycle. used in conjunction with an area measurement to calculate volumetric flow
  33. the resistive index (RI) referred to the
    Pourcelot index
  34. Pulsatility Index (PI) referred to as the
    Gosling index
  35. Systolic Diastolic ratio (S/D) sometimes called
    the A/B ratio
  36. murmurs
    an audible sensation caused by a hemodynamic disturbance such as turbulence or the vibration which results from a pressure head encountering a major resistance such as severe stenosis or complete occlusion
  37. a bruit
    analogous audio and visual sensation that results when performing doppler. a bright white reflection, ''thumping'' or ''shudder'' sound. severely stenosis
  38. harmonic bruit
    multiple frequencies "chirping or "seagull" sound. artifact caused by the saturation of the doppler circuit
  39. flow visualization
    Solana Beach CA,
  40. fluttering
    a bruit rapid acceleration exists in the presence of turbulence or complete occlusion
Card Set
kaye's class notes cardiovascular system
kaye's class notes cardiovascular system