1. Define Tissue
    • Group(s) of cell types and intercellular material that act
    • together to perform specific function (muscle, nerve)
  2. Define Organ/Organ system
    Aggregate of cells/tissues held together by intra and intercellular support structures (kidney, heart, GI tract)
  3. Intracellular fluid ratio
    2/3 of total body fluid
  4. List some basic components within cytosol
    carbohyrdates, proteins, lipids, amino acids
  5. what controls cytosol contents?
    Cell membrane/metabolism
  6. Define interstitial fluid, plasma, transcellular fluids
    • Interstitial - surrounds cells but does not circulate (3/4 ECF)
    • plasma - extracellular component of blood, circulates (1/4 ECF)
    • transcellular - fluid outside of normal compartments (CSF, synovial fluid, mucus, digestive juices)
  7. What does it mean to have increased amounts of cholesterol in the cell membrane?
    cell membrane has increased viscosity. This allows the cell to control it's movement through increased rigidity or fluidity of membrane
  8. examples of hydrophilic/phobic molecules
    • philic: proteins, glucose, ions, urea
    • phobic: CO2, O2, lipids, alcohol
  9. four functions of cell membrane
    physical isolation, immunospecificity, selective permeability, structural support
  10. Functions of an integral protein
    Spanning the lipid bilayer, in integral protein can allow hydrophilic molecules to diffuse, can actively transport molecules, and can receive messages from enzymes/ligands
  11. peripheral proteins
    usually residing on the cytoplasmic side of the cell near transmembrane proteins, the peripheral protein activates a process on the inside of the cell when ligand activates transmembrane protein
  12. Glycocalyx
    • Serves as recognition factor in immunospecificity
    • Attachment sites for other cells and to ECM
    • some negatively charged to reflect other negative ions
    • receptors for binding hormones
  13. The outer layer of the nucleus is continuous with the ____ ____
    endoplasmic reticulum. Also contains genes that control production of cellular proteins
  14. More about the nucleus
    It contains guarded pores where double membrane fuses. It contains heterochromatin (inactive) and euchromatin (active) DNA strands. Contains a nucleoli (accumulation of Ribosomes and RNA ready to be translated)
  15. structure/function of endoplasmic reticulum
    complex of flat and vesicular membrane bound structures. Functions to manufacture proteins from RNA pouring from nucleus. Rough ER - ribosomes (produces new protein for cell/for secretion), smooth ER - no ribosomes. (steroid production, detoxification, membrane upkeep, calcium storage)
  16. golgi apparatus structure/function
    Receives packaged materials from ER for final processing/secretion (cell packaging center) Then release via exocytosis
  17. cis and trans ER faces?
    The cis face is where the golgi accepts packages from ER, the trans face is where those packages mature into vesicles for transport
  18. Mitochondria
    double lipid bilayer, ATP, matrix filled with enzymes that extract energy from nucleus, cristae create greater surface area for enzymatic activity, exists in variable amounts in cells depending on demand
  19. Primary/secondary lysosomes
    Primary simply contain digestive enzymes, secondary contain contents to be digested that merges with primary
  20. microfilament functions/a highly prevalent type of microfilament
    Actin is primary one. Functions: anchors cytoplasm to membrane proteins, alters structural support (more viscosity = more filaments) and interacts with myosin in muscle contraction
  21. intermediate filaments: functions
    maintains strength and stability for cell shape, anchors organelles in place, stabilizes cell position via inter-cell attachment to cell membranes
  22. Microtubules:functions/characteristics
    maintain cell shape, participate in intra cellular movement by providing pathways, made of alpha and beta tubulins circularly arranged, cilia and flagella, form mitotic spindle for aligning chromosomes
  23. plasticity of organelles
    Organelles form due to function (RER and microtubules in neurons for transport of neurotransmitters)
Card Set
Histology PP 1