Stress Management Chapter 3 Physiology of Stress

  1. Psychophysiology
    A field of study based on the principle that the mind and body are one, where thoughts and perceptions affect potentially all aspects of physiology
  2. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Consist of the brain and spinal column, while the peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprises all neural pathways to the extremities
  3. Reticular activating system (RAS)
    The neural fibers that link the brain to the spinal column
  4. Limbic System
    The midlevel of the brain, including the hypothalmus and amygdala, which is thought to be responsible for emotional processing.
  5. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
    Often referred to as the automatic nervous system, the ANS consists of the sympathetic (arousal) and parasympathetic (relaxed) nervous systems.  This part of the central nervous system requires no conscious thought; actions such as breathing and heart rate are programmed to function automatically.
  6. Innervated
  7. Sympathetic
    The branch of the central nervous system that triggers the fight-or-flight response when some element of threat is present.
  8. Parasympathetic
    The branch of the central nervous system that specifically calms the body through the parasympathetic response.
  9. Epinephrine
    A special neurochemical referred to as a catecholamine that is responsible for immediate physical readiness for stress including increased heart rate and blood pressure.  It works in unison with norepinephrine.
  10. Norepinephrine
    A special neurochemical referred to as a catacholamine that is responsible for immediate physical readiness to stress including increased heart rate and blood pressure.  It works in unison with epinephrine.
  11. Catabolic functioning
    A metabolic process in which metabolites are broken down for energy in preparation for, or in the process of, exercise (fight or flight).

    Metabolite-A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism. The term metabolite is usually restricted to small molecules. ... Metabolites from chemical compounds, whether inherent or pharmaceutical, are formed as part of the natural biochemical process of degrading and eliminating the compounds.
  12. Viscera
    The internal organs of the body, specifically those within the chest (as the heart or lungs) or abdomen (as the liver, pancreas or intestines). The singular of "viscera" is "viscus" meaning in Latin "an organ of the body."
  13. Serotonin
    A neurotransmitter that is associated with mood.  A decrease in serotonin levels is thought to be related to depression.  Serotonin levels are affected by many factors including stress hormones and the foods you consume.
  14. Melatonin
    A hormone secreted in the brain that is related to sleep, mood, and perhaps several other aspects of physiology and consciousness.
  15. Immediate (effects of stress)
    A neural response to cognitive processing in which epinephrine and norepinephrine are released, lasting only seconds.
  16. Anabolic functioning
    A physiological process in which various body cells (e.g., muscle tissue) regenerate or grow.
  17. Acetylcholine
    A chemical substance released by the parasympathetic nervous system to help the body return to homeostasis from the stress response.
  18. Cerebration
    A term used to describe the neurological excitability of the brain, associated with anxiety attacks and insomnia.
  19. The Endocrine System
    Consists of a series of glands located throughout the body that regulate metabolic functions requiring endurance rather than speed.  The endocrine system is a network of four components: glands, hormones, circulation, and target organs.  Endocrine glands manufacture and release biochemical substances call hormones.
  20. Hormones
    Are "chemical messengers" made up of protein compounds that are programmed to attach to specific cell receptor sites to alter(increase or decrease) cell metabolism.
  21. Pituitary gland
    An endocrine gland ("master gland") located below the hypothalamus that, upon command from the hypothalamus, releases ACTH and then commands the adrenal glands to secrete their stress hormones.
  22. Hypothalamus
    Often called the "seat of the emotions," the hypothalamus is involved with emotional processing.  When a thought is perceived as a threat, the hypothalamus secretes a substance called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) to the pituitary gland to activate the fight-or-flight response.
  23. Adrenal gland
    The endocrine glands that are located on top of each kidney that house and release several stress hormones including cortisol and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine.  The adrenal gland is known as "the stress gland."
  24. Corticosteroids
    Stress hormones released by the adrenal cortex, such as cortisol and cortisone.
  25. Glucocorticoids
    A family of biochemical agents that include cortisol and cortisone, produced and release from the adrenal gland.
  26. Cortisol
    A stress hormone released by the adrenal glands that helps the body prepare for fight or flight by promoting the release of glucose and lipids in the blood for energy metabolism.
  27. Mineralocorticoids
    A class or hormones that maintain plasma volume and electrolyte balance, such as aldosterone.
  28. Adrenal Medulla
    The portion of the adrenal gland responsible for secreting epinephrine and norepinephrine.  The adrenal medulla releases 80% epinephrine and 20% norepinephrine.
  29. Intermediate stress effects
    The hormonal response triggered by the neural aspects of the adrenal medulla that are released directly into the blood, lasting minutes to hours.
  30. Prolonged effect of stress
    Hormonal effects that may take days or perhaps more than a week to be fully realized from the initial stress response.
  31. Axis
    A biochemical pathway
  32. ACTH Axis
    A physiological pathway whereby a message is sent from the hypothalamus to the pituitary, then on to the adrenal gland to release a flood of stress hormones for fight or flight.
  33. Vasopressin Axis
    A chain of physiological events stemming from the release of vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH).  The primary purpose of vasopressin is to regulate fluid loss through the urinary tract.  It does this in a number of ways, including water reabsorption and decreased perspiration.  The purpose of vasopressin as well as aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine is to increase blood pressure to ensure that active muscles receive oxygenated blood.
  34. Thyroxine Axis
    A chain of physiological events stemming from the release of thyroxine.  Stimulation in the hypothalamus triggers the release of thyrotropic hormone-releasing factor (TRF).  TRF is transported through a special portal system to the anterior portion of the pituitary, where it stimulates the secretion of thyrotropic hormone (TTH).  Once in the bloodstream, TTH follows a path to the thyroid gland, which stimulates the release of two more hormones:thyroxine and triiodothyronine.  The purpose of these two hormones is to increase overall metabolism, or basal metabolic rate (BMR).
  35. HPA Axis
    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, a term synonymous with the ACTH axis.
  36. Adrenal Cortex
    The portion of the adrenal gland that produces and secretes a host of corticosteroids (e.g., cortisol and aldosterone).
  37. Allostatic load
    A term coined by stress researcher Bruce McEwen to replace the expression "stressed out"; the damage to the body when the allostatic (stress) response functions improperly or for prolonged states, causing physical damage to the body.
Card Set
Stress Management Chapter 3 Physiology of Stress
Physiology of stress