psych 300

  1. attention theories:

    ____ everything goes to Sensory register --> selective filter --> perceptual process ---> Conscious.
    Broadbent’s Early Selection Theory
  2. ________ Places Broadband selective filter after perceptual processes. This means that you
    DO register and assign everything meaning but then selective filter decides what
    you pass on to conscious awareness.

    sensory register --> perceptual ---> selective filter --> conscious
    Deutch & Deutch’s Late Selection Theory

    The Dutch pay attention (perceptualize) to EVERYTHING!
  3. Instead of complete selective filter, have an attenuator – weakens but doesn’t
    eliminate input from unattended ear. Then some gets to perceptual processes,
    so still assign meaning to stuff in unattended ear, just not high priority. Then
    switch if something important.

    this theory replaced the selective filter with an
    attenuator, so attended message processed to greater degree
    Treisman’s Attenuation Theory

    • Acronym: Triessman is SHARP as a T. He is smart enough to only
    • attenuate and then perceive.
  4. phonological loop (words/numbers/iconic & echoic) + visuospatial sketchpad (maps/pics) are coordinated by _______ and then this integrated representation is stored into long term memory by the _______
    central executive

    episodic buffer  


    • Acronym: Central Cities
    • Executive Traffic Cop directs memory components
  5. A task in which subjects are asked to perform a
    simple mathematical verification (e.g., 4/2 +1 = 3) and then read a word, with a
    recall test following some number of those verify/read pairs. The maximum
    number of words that can be recalled is the "_______"
    operation span

    operation span testing
  6. Habits/Implicit memory is stored in the ______.
    basal ganglia
  7. A ______ speeds up processing. caused by
    simply experiencing the stimulus. It is thought to be
    caused by spreading activation. This means that the first stimulus
    activates parts of a particular representation
    or association in memory just before carrying out an action or task. The
    representation is already partially activated when the second stimulus is
    encountered, so less additional activation is needed for one to become
    consciously aware of it.
    positive prime

    negative prime slows response
  8. cognitive abilities that decline with age ____ , ____ , _____ , _____ , _____


    improve with age _____, _____, _____

    stable with age _____, _____
    decline (DEPPR -- depraved): divided attention, episodic memory, processing speed, prospective memory, recall 

    fluid intelligence also declines with age

    improve- semantic memory, and crystallized intelligence , emotional reasoning 

    stable - implicit memory, and recognition (IRS - Implicit and recognition stable like IRS)
  9. ______ occurs when attention is attracted by the motion of an object or
    stimulus.
    Attentional capture
  10. _______ is the act of bringing the spotlight of attention on an object or event
    without body or eye movement.


    ______, a person turns all or part of the body to alter or maximize the sensory
    impact of an event.
    Covert orienting

    Overt orienting
  11. _______ - occurs when damage to the brain causes a change or loss in the
    capacity of the spatial dimension of divided attention.
    Neglect syndrome
  12. _____ tests would use shape of skull to identify characteristics related to personality
    phrenology
  13. ______ focuses on influence of parents in a child's life so if child experiences trauma like abuse from parent it affects them later
    psychoanalytic 

    NOT behavioral (operant conditioning or classical conditioning)
  14. Robert Sternberg 3 types of intelligence and name of theory
    triarchic

    • analytic
    • creative
    • practical
  15. _______ – located on right hemisphere. Concerned with larger units of speech like
    syllables. Contribute to linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm.
    It may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional
    state of the speaker; the form of the utterance (statement, question, or command); the
    presence of irony or sarcasm; emphasis, contrast, and focus; or other elements of
    language that may not be encoded by grammar or by choice of vocabulary.
    Prosody
  16. the branch of medicine which deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health.

    factors that control presence or absence of disease
    epidemiology
  17. which one is a anxiety disorder and which is a trauma and stress related disorder?

    PTSD

    Panic disorder

    selective mutism
    PTSD- stress and trauma

    Panic disorder - anxiety

    selective mutism - anxiety
  18. _______: Dependences of language on context and pre-existing knowledge.
    It is affected by prosody – the rhythm, cadence, and inflection
    of our voices.
    Pragmatics
  19. exposure therapy is most similar to extinction or generalization?
    extinction- negation of response as conditioned stimulus is presented w/o the unconditioned response 

    exposure to conditioned stimulus (of fear) w/o unconditioned fear stimulus to eventually negate fear
  20. major difference between operant and classical conditioning?
    only operant directly affects behavior

    both can undergo extinction and generalization

    ex- guy might start speeding again when not getting ticket for while

    gen - dog may fetch after anything just to get treat
  21. (acronym: anterior cingulate responds to
    serotonin - Anterior designers are CINGLEate (single) and love SEXetonin….when
    they get stressed they stop having SEXetonin (stop responding to serotonin)
    stress

    • Biological backing: The anterior cingulate (anterior part of the frontal cortex)
    • stops responding to serotonin.
  22. ______ breaking up the problem into smaller components and solving each one at a time

    ______ solving the problem using creative and original ways in a novel way
    means-end analysis

    divergent problem solving
  23. which one fires when pressure is applied then released and which fires at constant pressure?

    meissiner corpuscle

    pacinian corpuscle

    merkel receptor

    ruffini cylinder
    meissiner corpuscle - pressure applied and again when pressure released

    pacinian corpuscle - pressure applied and again when pressure released

    merkel receptor - constant pressure

    ruffini cylinder - constant pressure
  24. _______ or _______ refers to the coping responses of minority
    groups in an attempt to fit into the dominant culture. For example, minority students at
    school may learn to put in only minimal effort as they believe they are being
    discriminated against by the dominant culture.
    Low-effort syndrome

    low-effort coping
  25. ____ postulates that gustatory receptors sensitive to a particular molecule are present in a particular cell and sends an axonal projection to a particular part of brain. 

    No mixing with other receptors


    If a sweet receptor is placed into a salty cell what effect would glucose minding to this receptor have?
    Labeled lines model

    sugar would taste salty. (Another example of labeled lines and its the cell not the receptor that matters, so since it was in a salty cell, the sugar binding to the sugar/sweet receptor makes sugar taste like salt).
  26. UMN signs- 4 of em
    hypertonia- incr muscle tension reduced stretch 

    hyperreflexia- 

    clonus- rhythmic contractions of antagonistic muscle. foot go up and down from hyperreflexia

    babinski/ extensor plantar response- swipe bottom of foot and toe come out instead of in
  27. HYPOTHALamus releases _____ which inhibits prolactin release
    dopamine - produced in the arcuate nucleus via the tubularfindibular pathway
  28. 5 monoamines and the 3 that are catacholamines
    catecholamines - norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine

    monoamines- histamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine
  29. birth at ___ weeks is full term, pre term and post term

    complications in both pre and post term
    40 weeks full term

    b4 37 weeks pre-term

    after 42 weeks post-term
  30. social effects of puberty for males and females which have negative and positive?
    males both- positive cuz taller stronger more athletic popular negative cuz increase delinquency and alcohol use

    females - only negative cuz teasing sexual harass
  31. Myers Briggs Personality Test – Carl Jung - 4 letters that characterize you in one of 16
    personality types. There are a set of traits/behaviors based on these!

    ESTJ- What does it stand for?

    INFP- What?
    extraversion, sensing, thinking, judging 

    introversion, intuition, feeling, perception
  32. Hans eysenck personality factors

    jeff allan grays
    Hans - psychotic, extraversion, neuroticism 

    jeff allen gray - ocean openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
  33. _________ – that person targeted with
    projection can starting believing, feeling, having thoughts of the
    attributes that were projected to them
    projective identification
  34. defense mechanism categories-

    pathological - 

    immature- PP

    mature- HASS

    neurotic - 3RDI
    pathological - denial (pathological liar denies)

    immature- saying PP is immature- projection and passive aggression 

    mature- altruism, sublimation, suppress, humor

    neurotic - reaction formation, regression, rationalize, intellectualization, displacement
  35. _____ Drives: Life Drive. Like health, safety, sex. Comes with love, cooperation,
    collaboration. Working with others to promote your and others wellbeing

    ______: Death Drive. Self-Destructive/Harmful to Others. Comes with Fear,
    anger (inward or outward), hate.
    Eros

    o Thantos
  36. what % of people meet criteria for mental disorder?
    25% mental disorder

    (6% severe)
  37. which cluster for personality disorders based off letter and list types involved?

    intense/emotional/relationship problems (wild)

     anxious/avoidant/obsessive (worried)

    odd/eccentric (weird)
    intense/emotional/relationship problems (wild) - cluster B (histrionic, borderline, antisocial, narcissistic) 

    Cluster C is anxious/avoidant/obsessive (worried) (avoidant, Obsessive compulsive, dependent) 

    Cluster A odd/eccentric (weird) (schizoid, schizotypal, paranoid)
  38. ______ anxiety/obsession about potentially having an illness or developing one with NO ACTUAL PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS

    _____ phenomenon in which you have physical symptoms but it can't be explained by any medical condition or mental disorder. Pt expresses extreme anxiety over undiagnosed condition.

    _______ psychological stressor/ event/ traumatic experience occurs then converted to physical symptoms that have no underlying medical cause. neurological - speech, seizure, swallow, paralysis
    Illness anxiety disorder

    somatic symptom disorder

    conversion disorder
  39. two most common mental disorder %

    bipolar schizophrenia %
    anxiety - 18%

    depression - 10%

    bipolar - 2.8%

    schizo- 1%
  40. _______ (takes in insufficient amounts of food),


    ______ (binge eating then purging (induced vomiting)).


    •______: period of time before schizophrenia before symptoms are actually present.
    Anorexia nervosa

    bulimia nervosa

    Prodrome
  41. ______ Disorder
    o Patients want to be sick. The patient will falsify or disease their signs or
    symptoms to get a diagnosis/treatment.

    Ex. They might injure themselves, falsify
    tests. This is often called _______.


    o________ -when one person makes another person look ill so
    medical attention/treatment provided further for another individual.
    Factitious

    Munchausen’s syndrome


    Munchausen’s by proxy
  42. Mania acronym: DIG FAST (what does it stand for?)
    Distractibility, Insomnia, Grandiose, Fleeting thoughts, Agitation, Speech (pressured), Thoughtlessness (risky behavior
  43. bipolar 1

    bipolar 2

    cyclothymic
    ________: mania w/ or w/o a major depressive episode (can have hallucinations)

    ______: hypomania + at least one major depressive episode

    ______: hypomania + dysthymia
  44. ______ validity – do the conditions of the study mimic those of the real world.
    Ecological
  45. Examples of Agents of Socialization: name 6 things.
    pop culture

    family- most important agent

    religion

    school

    peers

    mass media
  46. _______, or ______: Mass hysteria can be a
    result of of psychology, like when large amount of people believe they
    have same illness despite lack of disease.
    • Ex. after anthrax attack in US, after reports there were over 2000
    false alarms. Individuals reported false symptoms of anthrax
    infection and because they believed they were exposed (which
    induced false symptoms).
    Mass psychogenic illness

    epidemic hysteria
  47. what is this an example of?

    If Akira has a horrific phobia of spiders, the
    therapist will teach Akira relaxation techniques (or give Akira a magical feel good
    drug). Slowly spiders are introduced to Akira. First maybe just a picture, then one in a cage, then one outside of a cage etc... The goal is to get Akira to associate spiders with
    the drugs or relaxation techniques. Eventually, seeing a spider will cause Akira to relax
    systematic desensitization
  48. Most of the time, systematic desensitization occurs gradually, but some
    therapists use a technique called _______. Here they throw Akira in a
    room with thousands of spiders with the idea that if they face their fear and
    survive, they will realize their fear is irrational. This technique often produces a
    lot of anxiety.
    implosive therapy
  49. ________ (also called stimulus substitution) is a form
    of respondent conditioning that involves the conditioning of an unwanted behavior or
    response to a stimulus into a wanted behavior or response by the association of positive
    actions with the stimulus.

    think the dog hates noise but u pair noise with food dog likes then eventually just the noise the dog likes now
    Counterconditioning
  50. Extinction occurs in both operant and classical conditioning.
    • Phobic responses are acquired through classical conditioning.
  51. vgotzky said babies have 4 elementary mental functions - crAMPS
    attention

    memory

    sensation

    perception
  52. In his
    experiment he suggested that babies are born with a built-in capacity to imitate
    others.

    experimenter stuck tongue out baby did too. Discovered mirror neurons in parietal lobe, premotor cortex , somatosensory cortex
    • Andrew Meltzoff (1977) published study that questioned theory that
    • understanding between self and others happens soon after birth.
  53. charles cooley vs mead 

    who thought everyone we interact with influence our identity?

    who thought only certain people and the way others influence us change over lifetime?
    who thought everyone we interact with influence our identity? charles cooley looking glass self

    who thought only certain people and the way others influence us change over lifetime? mead
  54. meads 3 stages-

    _____ - imitate others. ex play with pots/pans when parents cook

    _______ – more aware of social relationships, reflected in children’s
    tendency to pretend play as others like firefighters, doctors, etc. Mentally
    assuming perspective of others and acting based on their perceived point of
    view. Focused on role-taking: mentally taking perspective of another person and
    acting on that perceived viewpoint.


    ______ stage – Start to understand attitudes/beliefs/behavior of “generalized
    other” (society as a whole).  Children start to realize that people perform in ways not only on what they personally believe but what society expects of them and they understand that people can take on multiple roles (people can be more than just moms, doctors, or teachers – they can be multiple things @
    once).
    preparatory stage

    Play stage

    game stage
  55. george mead:

    ______ - dick moves less socialized less conforming spontaneous 

    _____ - no dick moves, socialized, conforming, society's view
    I

    Me
  56. Now imagine someone who we think is overall very poor. Even if baseline skills are
    same, we perceive them to all be lower – the __________. Can carry
    over into how we see other attributes about the person
    devil effect/reverse halo effect
  57. • _______: judging another culture as superior to one’s own culture

    Jonathan likes America better than Jamaica. I want to X out that viewpoint
    Xenocentrism
  58. _________: the deliberate imposition of one’s own cultural values on another
    culture.
    Cultural imperialism
  59. _______ is most powerful predictor of friendships and relationships.
    nearness
  60. _______ is when we assume other share the same beliefs we do.

    • _________ is when we assume everyone else agrees with what we do, even if they
    do not.
    projection bias

    False consensus
  61. When an individual stops engaging in
    a role previously central to their identity and the process of establishing a new identity.

    o Example: When an individual retires from a long career and must transition from
    the role of worker with deadlines and responsibilities to a leisurely life or
    when an individual becomes a parent and has to change their lifestyle.
    Role exit
  62. what is this?

    Ex. a small town where African American always get unfair verdict of
    guilty because they didn’t think they could get off on a fair verdict (so
    they take lesser crime). Then while applying to a job later, don’t get the
    job because of criminal record. Criminal justice reached unfair verdict,
    and potential employers are swayed too (employer is swayed and
    unjustly discriminates unintentional because of another institution – in
    this case the court system).
    Side-effect discrimination
  63. _______: a small group of people having control of a country,
    organization, or institution.

    ________ - process by which organizations become increasingly
    governed by laws and policy.
    Oligarchy

    Bureaucratization
  64. _______, where every employee in
    hierarchy keeps getting promoted until they reach level of incompetence
    (they remain at a position because they are not good enough at the job
    to get promoted any further).
    Peter Principle
  65. max weber thought these 5 things needed for ideal bureaucracy
    division of labor

    hierarchy

    employment based on qualifications for job

    written rules

    Impersonality – how individuals and officials conduct activities in unbiased manner
  66. • The term “_______” refers to individuals of a social class that
    have wealth, power, or influence.

    • The term “_______” refers to individuals from a working class,
    where their worth is determined by their ability to perform
    manual labor.
    bourgeois

    proletariat
  67. 3 assumptions of rational choice
    • 1. Completeness (every action can be ranked), ex. A is preferable to B
    • which is preferable to C. (C is not then preferable to A). (A>B>C)
    • § 2. Transitivity (since A is preferable to B is preferable to C, therefore, A is
    • also preferable to C). (same as math A >B >C, Therefore A>C).
    • § 3.) Independence of irrelevant alternatives (if I have a fourth option X,
    • won’t change order of how I ranked first 3 options. Just add it in to
    • existing order. (A>B>C, & B>X>C, Therefore: A>B>X>C).
  68. ______ looks at social/economic/political forces that result in
    racially constructed identities.
    § Sometimes differences are real, but sometimes only defined by history.
    • Ex. In 1800 in US, people would be considered black even if they
    appeared white if they had a black ancestor.
    Racial formation theory
  69. Racial differences can cause drastic events, like genocide or _______ (where
    group is forcefully moved from territory), ______ (minorities group is
    segregated and exploited), and _____ (where minority group is absorbed into the
    majority).
    population transfer

    inter-colonialism

    assimilation
  70. type of syndrome and chromosome

    ______ is male that are female like,

    _______ = females that are short

    XXX- Super female

    XYY - Super male
    XXY Kleinfelters

    XO Turners
  71. _____: Beyond suburbs, prosperous areas outside the city where people live and
    commute to city to work, like suburbs.
    Exurbs
  72. Malthusian Theorem suggests: Run out of resources, global food
    shortage. We won’t be able to maintain natural resources for everyone
    on planet. (high mortality rate)

    Anti-Malthusian Theorem: Couples only want to have one child or
    have children later in life. (low birth rate)

    • A micro-culture can’t support people throughout their lifespan, refers to
    groups/organizations only affecting limited period of one’s life. Ex. Girl scouts, college
    sororities, boarding school.
  73. ________ – opportunities for low-income people in segregated
    communities may be present but farther away, and harder to access. Gap
    between where people live and where opportunities are.
    Spatial mismatch
  74. • Index of dissimilarity – ____ is total segregation, and _____ perfect distributions.
    0

    100
  75. ________ - “causes people to underestimate both
    the possibility of a disaster occurring and its possible effects.
    “Cant Happen to me” Bias aka Normalcy Bias
  76. ________ the observer participates in ongoing
    activities and records observations. Participant observation extends beyond naturalistic
    observation because the observer is a "player" in the action

     ______ – when researchers pose as participants
    participant observation

    embedded field study
  77. Exogamy is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside a social
    group. The social groups define the scope and extent of exogamy, and the rules
    and enforcement mechanisms that ensure its continuity.
    o Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or
    social group, rejecting others on such a basis as being unsuitable for marriage or
    for other close personal relationships.
    o Homogamy is marriage between individuals who are, in some culturally
    important way, similar to each other. Homogamy may be based on
    320
    socioeconomic status, class, gender, ethnicity, or religion, or age in the case of
    the so-called age homogamy.
    o Heterogamy is a marriage between two individuals who are culturally different.
    o Homophily - the tendency for people to choose relationships with other people
    who have similar attributes. people often prefer mixing with those who are
    similar to themselves.
    o Homophilous social network is similar to reference group
  78. The recognition of facial expressions associated with sadness have been linked to the
    ________.

    The ______ and ______ are most often associated with disgust.


    Anger has been associated with the left ______.
    subcallosal cingulate

    insula and basal ganglia


    superior temporal sulcus
  79. ______ is a neurological disorder characterized by the inability to recognize familiar
    people based on facial information alone.

    Visual agnosia is a disorder of the ventral pathway, because it is an inability to recognize an
    image.
    Prosopagnosia
  80. Antipsychotics are a class of psychiatric medication primarily used to
    manage psychosis(including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought),
    principally for schizophreniaand bipolar disorder, and are increasingly being used in the
    management of non-psychotic disorders. Both types block dopamine pathways and cause
    Parkinson like symptoms. (also treat anxiety with dementia, OCD, and anxiety disorder).


    Typical Antipsychotics used to treat psychiatric conditions. Neuroleptics. Decrease positive
    symptoms of schizophrenia but can increase negative symptoms. First generation.

    The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are
    a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major
    tranquilisers). Block serotonin as well. Less likely to cause extrapyramidal motor control
    disability (negative symptoms increase) . these have increased risk of stroke, cardiac death,
    blood clot and diabetes.
  81. Agoraphobia – fear of open spaces, crowds, etc
    LSD – serotonin neurotransmission
    Nicotine – CNS stimulant by working as a acetylcholine agonist.
    Amphetamine – dopamine reuptake blocked
    Alcohol – CNS depressant
  82. _______ in humans inhibit the feeding circuit blocking satiety.

    The inhibition caused by
    peptide Y may cause the inhibition of other neurotransmitters such as cholecystokinin (CCK),
    which limits meal size by sensing the distention of the duodenum. This may cause eating
    without being sensitive to the signals that the individual is full.
    Neuropeptide Y
  83. proximal stimulus- actual neural activity/ stimulation/ Activity

    sensory stimulus- light , heat, touch, sound (the type)

    distal - actual stimulus (tree)
  84. The primary role of ______ also called orexin in the CNS is to control sleep and
    arousal.
    hypocritin
  85. _______: Temporal monotonicity assumes that adding pain at the end of a painful
    experience (in this case extending the painful experience) will worsen the retrospective
    evaluation of the experienced pain and adding pleasure at the end will enhance the
    retrospective evaluation.
    Temporal Monotocity
  86. § The _____ is a categorical change in auditory perception that occurs whenever the
    auditory stimulus does not match the visual stimulus during speech perception.
    McGurk effect
  87. receptive aphasia - a fluent aphasia which person will be able to read/ write but not understand (wernickes aphasia) (CAN speak but word salad)

    brocas aphasia is a non fluent aphasia
  88. opponent process theory - red vs green  and  blue vs yellow
  89. The _____ effect is an observation regarding the growth of IQ from one generation to
    the next.
    Flynn
  90. Cialidini’s Six key principles of influence
    liking - person likes u they do what u want

    recipricocity - u do for them they do for u

    social proof- others doing

    scarcity- make them think its  limited

    authority - obey 

    commitmen/ consistent - oral . written
  91. Pre-encounter african americans view majority of Caucasians as more desirable and view doctor of this race as more skilled 

    immersion emersion: view majority of caucasians with resentment and distrust prefer treatments from others stage 3:

    internalization: integrated aspects of his own culture with that of majority and work to rectify past racial injustices

    cross nigrescence model
Author
JAM41MAN
ID
348166
Card Set
psych 300
Description
3
Updated