____ everything goes to Sensory register --> selective filter --> perceptual process ---> Conscious.
Broadbent’s Early Selection Theory
________ Places Broadband selective filter after perceptual processes. This means that you
DO register and assign everything meaning but then selective filter decides what
you pass on to conscious awareness.
sensory register --> perceptual ---> selective filter --> conscious
Deutch & Deutch’s Late Selection Theory
The Dutch pay attention (perceptualize) to EVERYTHING!
Instead of complete selective filter, have an attenuator – weakens but doesn’t
eliminate input from unattended ear. Then some gets to perceptual processes,
so still assign meaning to stuff in unattended ear, just not high priority. Then
switch if something important.
this theory replaced the selective filter with an
attenuator, so attended message processed to greater degree
Treisman’s Attenuation Theory
- Acronym: Triessman is SHARP as a T. He is smart enough to only
- attenuate and then perceive.
phonological loop (words/numbers/iconic & echoic) + visuospatial sketchpad (maps/pics) are coordinated by _______ and then this integrated representation is stored into long term memory by the _______
- Acronym: Central Cities
- Executive Traffic Cop directs memory components
A task in which subjects are asked to perform a
simple mathematical verification (e.g., 4/2 +1 = 3) and then read a word, with a
recall test following some number of those verify/read pairs. The maximum
number of words that can be recalled is the "_______"
operation span testing
Habits/Implicit memory is stored in the ______.
A ______ speeds up processing. caused by
simply experiencing the stimulus. It is thought to be
caused by spreading activation. This means that the first stimulus
activates parts of a particular representation
or association in memory just before carrying out an action or task. The
representation is already partially activated when the second stimulus is
encountered, so less additional activation is needed for one to become
consciously aware of it.
negative prime slows response
cognitive abilities that decline with age ____ , ____ , _____ , _____ , _____
improve with age _____, _____, _____
stable with age _____, _____
decline (DEPPR -- depraved): divided attention, episodic memory, processing speed, prospective memory, recall
fluid intelligence also declines with age
improve- semantic memory, and crystallized intelligence , emotional reasoning
stable - implicit memory, and recognition (IRS - Implicit and recognition stable like IRS)
______ occurs when attention is attracted by the motion of an object or
_______ is the act of bringing the spotlight of attention on an object or event
without body or eye movement.
______, a person turns all or part of the body to alter or maximize the sensory
impact of an event.
_______ - occurs when damage to the brain causes a change or loss in the
capacity of the spatial dimension of divided attention.
_____ tests would use shape of skull to identify characteristics related to personality
______ focuses on influence of parents in a child's life so if child experiences trauma like abuse from parent it affects them later
NOT behavioral (operant conditioning or classical conditioning)
Robert Sternberg 3 types of intelligence and name of theory
_______ – located on right hemisphere. Concerned with larger units of speech like
syllables. Contribute to linguistic functions such as intonation, tone, stress, and rhythm.
It may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional
state of the speaker; the form of the utterance (statement, question, or command); the
presence of irony or sarcasm; emphasis, contrast, and focus; or other elements of
language that may not be encoded by grammar or by choice of vocabulary.
the branch of medicine which deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health.
factors that control presence or absence of disease
which one is a anxiety disorder and which is a trauma and stress related disorder?
PTSD- stress and trauma
Panic disorder - anxiety
selective mutism - anxiety
_______: Dependences of language on context and pre-existing knowledge.
It is affected by prosody – the rhythm, cadence, and inflection
of our voices.
exposure therapy is most similar to extinction or generalization?
extinction- negation of response as conditioned stimulus is presented w/o the unconditioned response
exposure to conditioned stimulus (of fear) w/o unconditioned fear stimulus to eventually negate fear
major difference between operant and classical conditioning?
only operant directly affects behavior
both can undergo extinction and generalization
ex- guy might start speeding again when not getting ticket for while
gen - dog may fetch after anything just to get treat
(acronym: anterior cingulate responds to
serotonin - Anterior designers are CINGLEate (single) and love SEXetonin….when
they get stressed they stop having SEXetonin (stop responding to serotonin)
- Biological backing: The anterior cingulate (anterior part of the frontal cortex)
- stops responding to serotonin.
______ breaking up the problem into smaller components and solving each one at a time
______ solving the problem using creative and original ways in a novel way
divergent problem solving
which one fires when pressure is applied then released and which fires at constant pressure?
meissiner corpuscle - pressure applied and again when pressure released
pacinian corpuscle - pressure applied and again when pressure released
merkel receptor - constant pressure
ruffini cylinder - constant pressure
_______ or _______ refers to the coping responses of minority
groups in an attempt to fit into the dominant culture. For example, minority students at
school may learn to put in only minimal effort as they believe they are being
discriminated against by the dominant culture.
____ postulates that gustatory receptors sensitive to a particular molecule are present in a particular cell and sends an axonal projection to a particular part of brain.
No mixing with other receptors
If a sweet receptor is placed into a salty cell what effect would glucose minding to this receptor have?
Labeled lines model
sugar would taste salty. (Another example of labeled lines and its the cell not the receptor that matters, so since it was in a salty cell, the sugar binding to the sugar/sweet receptor makes sugar taste like salt).
UMN signs- 4 of em
hypertonia- incr muscle tension reduced stretch
clonus- rhythmic contractions of antagonistic muscle. foot go up and down from hyperreflexia
babinski/ extensor plantar response- swipe bottom of foot and toe come out instead of in
HYPOTHALamus releases _____ which inhibits prolactin release
dopamine - produced in the arcuate nucleus via the tubularfindibular pathway
5 monoamines and the 3 that are catacholamines
catecholamines - norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine
monoamines- histamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine
birth at ___ weeks is full term, pre term and post term
complications in both pre and post term
40 weeks full term
b4 37 weeks pre-term
after 42 weeks post-term
social effects of puberty for males and females which have negative and positive?
males both- positive cuz taller stronger more athletic popular negative cuz increase delinquency and alcohol use
females - only negative cuz teasing sexual harass
Myers Briggs Personality Test – Carl Jung - 4 letters that characterize you in one of 16
personality types. There are a set of traits/behaviors based on these!
ESTJ- What does it stand for?
extraversion, sensing, thinking, judging
introversion, intuition, feeling, perception
Hans eysenck personality factors
jeff allan grays
Hans - psychotic, extraversion, neuroticism
jeff allen gray - ocean openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
_________ – that person targeted with
projection can starting believing, feeling, having thoughts of the
attributes that were projected to them
defense mechanism categories-
neurotic - 3RDI
pathological - denial (pathological liar denies)
immature- saying PP is immature- projection and passive aggression
mature- altruism, sublimation, suppress, humor
neurotic - reaction formation, regression, rationalize, intellectualization, displacement
_____ Drives: Life Drive. Like health, safety, sex. Comes with love, cooperation,
collaboration. Working with others to promote your and others wellbeing
______: Death Drive. Self-Destructive/Harmful to Others. Comes with Fear,
anger (inward or outward), hate.
what % of people meet criteria for mental disorder?
25% mental disorder
which cluster for personality disorders based off letter and list types involved?
intense/emotional/relationship problems (wild)
intense/emotional/relationship problems (wild) - cluster B (histrionic, borderline, antisocial, narcissistic)
Cluster C is anxious/avoidant/obsessive (worried) (avoidant, Obsessive compulsive, dependent)
Cluster A odd/eccentric (weird) (schizoid, schizotypal, paranoid)
______ anxiety/obsession about potentially having an illness or developing one with NO ACTUAL PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS
_____ phenomenon in which you have physical symptoms but it can't be explained by any medical condition or mental disorder. Pt expresses extreme anxiety over undiagnosed condition.
_______ psychological stressor/ event/ traumatic experience occurs then converted to physical symptoms that have no underlying medical cause. neurological - speech, seizure, swallow, paralysis
Illness anxiety disorder
somatic symptom disorder
two most common mental disorder %
bipolar schizophrenia %
anxiety - 18%
depression - 10%
bipolar - 2.8%
_______ (takes in insufficient amounts of food),
______ (binge eating then purging (induced vomiting)).
•______: period of time before schizophrenia before symptoms are actually present.
o Patients want to be sick. The patient will falsify or disease their signs or
symptoms to get a diagnosis/treatment.
Ex. They might injure themselves, falsify
tests. This is often called _______.
o________ -when one person makes another person look ill so
medical attention/treatment provided further for another individual.
Munchausen’s by proxy
Mania acronym: DIG FAST (what does it stand for?)
Distractibility, Insomnia, Grandiose, Fleeting thoughts, Agitation, Speech (pressured), Thoughtlessness (risky behavior
________: mania w/ or w/o a major depressive episode (can have hallucinations)
______: hypomania + at least one major depressive episode
______: hypomania + dysthymia
______ validity – do the conditions of the study mimic those of the real world.
Examples of Agents of Socialization: name 6 things.
family- most important agent
_______, or ______: Mass hysteria can be a
result of of psychology, like when large amount of people believe they
have same illness despite lack of disease.
• Ex. after anthrax attack in US, after reports there were over 2000
false alarms. Individuals reported false symptoms of anthrax
infection and because they believed they were exposed (which
induced false symptoms).
Mass psychogenic illness
what is this an example of?
If Akira has a horrific phobia of spiders, the
therapist will teach Akira relaxation techniques (or give Akira a magical feel good
drug). Slowly spiders are introduced to Akira. First maybe just a picture, then one in a cage, then one outside of a cage etc... The goal is to get Akira to associate spiders with
the drugs or relaxation techniques. Eventually, seeing a spider will cause Akira to relax
Most of the time, systematic desensitization occurs gradually, but some
therapists use a technique called _______. Here they throw Akira in a
room with thousands of spiders with the idea that if they face their fear and
survive, they will realize their fear is irrational. This technique often produces a
lot of anxiety.
________ (also called stimulus substitution) is a form
of respondent conditioning that involves the conditioning of an unwanted behavior or
response to a stimulus into a wanted behavior or response by the association of positive
actions with the stimulus.
think the dog hates noise but u pair noise with food dog likes then eventually just the noise the dog likes now
Extinction occurs in both operant and classical conditioning.
• Phobic responses are acquired through classical conditioning.
vgotzky said babies have 4 elementary mental functions - crAMPS
experiment he suggested that babies are born with a built-in capacity to imitate
experimenter stuck tongue out baby did too. Discovered mirror neurons in parietal lobe, premotor cortex , somatosensory cortex
- Andrew Meltzoff (1977) published study that questioned theory that
- understanding between self and others happens soon after birth.
charles cooley vs mead
who thought everyone we interact with influence our identity?
who thought only certain people and the way others influence us change over lifetime?
who thought everyone we interact with influence our identity? charles cooley looking glass self
who thought only certain people and the way others influence us change over lifetime? mead
meads 3 stages-
_____ - imitate others. ex play with pots/pans when parents cook
_______ – more aware of social relationships, reflected in children’s
tendency to pretend play as others like firefighters, doctors, etc. Mentally
assuming perspective of others and acting based on their perceived point of
view. Focused on role-taking: mentally taking perspective of another person and
acting on that perceived viewpoint.
______ stage – Start to understand attitudes/beliefs/behavior of “generalized
other” (society as a whole). Children start to realize that people perform in ways not only on what they personally believe but what society expects of them and they understand that people can take on multiple roles (people can be more than just moms, doctors, or teachers – they can be multiple things @
______ - dick moves less socialized less conforming spontaneous
_____ - no dick moves, socialized, conforming, society's view
Now imagine someone who we think is overall very poor. Even if baseline skills are
same, we perceive them to all be lower – the __________. Can carry
over into how we see other attributes about the person
devil effect/reverse halo effect
• _______: judging another culture as superior to one’s own culture
Jonathan likes America better than Jamaica. I want to X out that viewpoint
_________: the deliberate imposition of one’s own cultural values on another
_______ is most powerful predictor of friendships and relationships.
_______ is when we assume other share the same beliefs we do.
• _________ is when we assume everyone else agrees with what we do, even if they
When an individual stops engaging in
a role previously central to their identity and the process of establishing a new identity.
o Example: When an individual retires from a long career and must transition from
the role of worker with deadlines and responsibilities to a leisurely life or
when an individual becomes a parent and has to change their lifestyle.
what is this?
Ex. a small town where African American always get unfair verdict of
guilty because they didn’t think they could get off on a fair verdict (so
they take lesser crime). Then while applying to a job later, don’t get the
job because of criminal record. Criminal justice reached unfair verdict,
and potential employers are swayed too (employer is swayed and
unjustly discriminates unintentional because of another institution – in
this case the court system).
_______: a small group of people having control of a country,
organization, or institution.
________ - process by which organizations become increasingly
governed by laws and policy.
_______, where every employee in
hierarchy keeps getting promoted until they reach level of incompetence
(they remain at a position because they are not good enough at the job
to get promoted any further).
max weber thought these 5 things needed for ideal bureaucracy
division of labor
employment based on qualifications for job
Impersonality – how individuals and officials conduct activities in unbiased manner
• The term “_______” refers to individuals of a social class that
have wealth, power, or influence.
• The term “_______” refers to individuals from a working class,
where their worth is determined by their ability to perform
3 assumptions of rational choice
- 1. Completeness (every action can be ranked), ex. A is preferable to B
- which is preferable to C. (C is not then preferable to A). (A>B>C)
- § 2. Transitivity (since A is preferable to B is preferable to C, therefore, A is
- also preferable to C). (same as math A >B >C, Therefore A>C).
- § 3.) Independence of irrelevant alternatives (if I have a fourth option X,
- won’t change order of how I ranked first 3 options. Just add it in to
- existing order. (A>B>C, & B>X>C, Therefore: A>B>X>C).
______ looks at social/economic/political forces that result in
racially constructed identities.
§ Sometimes differences are real, but sometimes only defined by history.
• Ex. In 1800 in US, people would be considered black even if they
appeared white if they had a black ancestor.
Racial formation theory
Racial differences can cause drastic events, like genocide or _______ (where
group is forcefully moved from territory), ______ (minorities group is
segregated and exploited), and _____ (where minority group is absorbed into the
type of syndrome and chromosome
______ is male that are female like,
_______ = females that are short
XXX- Super female
XYY - Super male
_____: Beyond suburbs, prosperous areas outside the city where people live and
commute to city to work, like suburbs.
Malthusian Theorem suggests: Run out of resources, global food
shortage. We won’t be able to maintain natural resources for everyone
on planet. (high mortality rate)
Anti-Malthusian Theorem: Couples only want to have one child or
have children later in life. (low birth rate)
• A micro-culture can’t support people throughout their lifespan, refers to
groups/organizations only affecting limited period of one’s life. Ex. Girl scouts, college
sororities, boarding school.
________ – opportunities for low-income people in segregated
communities may be present but farther away, and harder to access. Gap
between where people live and where opportunities are.
• Index of dissimilarity – ____ is total segregation, and _____ perfect distributions.
________ - “causes people to underestimate both
the possibility of a disaster occurring and its possible effects.
“Cant Happen to me” Bias aka Normalcy Bias
________ the observer participates in ongoing
activities and records observations. Participant observation extends beyond naturalistic
observation because the observer is a "player" in the action
______ – when researchers pose as participants
embedded field study
Exogamy is a social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside a social
group. The social groups define the scope and extent of exogamy, and the rules
and enforcement mechanisms that ensure its continuity.
o Endogamy is the practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or
social group, rejecting others on such a basis as being unsuitable for marriage or
for other close personal relationships.
o Homogamy is marriage between individuals who are, in some culturally
important way, similar to each other. Homogamy may be based on
socioeconomic status, class, gender, ethnicity, or religion, or age in the case of
the so-called age homogamy.
o Heterogamy is a marriage between two individuals who are culturally different.
o Homophily - the tendency for people to choose relationships with other people
who have similar attributes. people often prefer mixing with those who are
similar to themselves.
o Homophilous social network is similar to reference group
The recognition of facial expressions associated with sadness have been linked to the
The ______ and ______ are most often associated with disgust.
Anger has been associated with the left ______.
insula and basal ganglia
superior temporal sulcus
______ is a neurological disorder characterized by the inability to recognize familiar
people based on facial information alone.
Visual agnosia is a disorder of the ventral pathway, because it is an inability to recognize an
Antipsychotics are a class of psychiatric medication primarily used to
manage psychosis(including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought),
principally for schizophreniaand bipolar disorder, and are increasingly being used in the
management of non-psychotic disorders. Both types block dopamine pathways and cause
Parkinson like symptoms. (also treat anxiety with dementia, OCD, and anxiety disorder).
Typical Antipsychotics used to treat psychiatric conditions. Neuroleptics. Decrease positive
symptoms of schizophrenia but can increase negative symptoms. First generation.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are
a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major
tranquilisers). Block serotonin as well. Less likely to cause extrapyramidal motor control
disability (negative symptoms increase) . these have increased risk of stroke, cardiac death,
blood clot and diabetes.
Agoraphobia – fear of open spaces, crowds, etc
LSD – serotonin neurotransmission
Nicotine – CNS stimulant by working as a acetylcholine agonist.
Amphetamine – dopamine reuptake blocked
Alcohol – CNS depressant
_______ in humans inhibit the feeding circuit blocking satiety.
The inhibition caused by
peptide Y may cause the inhibition of other neurotransmitters such as cholecystokinin (CCK),
which limits meal size by sensing the distention of the duodenum. This may cause eating
without being sensitive to the signals that the individual is full.
proximal stimulus- actual neural activity/ stimulation/ Activity
sensory stimulus- light , heat, touch, sound (the type)
distal - actual stimulus (tree)
The primary role of ______ also called orexin in the CNS is to control sleep and
_______: Temporal monotonicity assumes that adding pain at the end of a painful
experience (in this case extending the painful experience) will worsen the retrospective
evaluation of the experienced pain and adding pleasure at the end will enhance the
§ The _____ is a categorical change in auditory perception that occurs whenever the
auditory stimulus does not match the visual stimulus during speech perception.
receptive aphasia - a fluent aphasia which person will be able to read/ write but not understand (wernickes aphasia) (CAN speak but word salad)
brocas aphasia is a non fluent aphasia
opponent process theory - red vs green and blue vs yellow
The _____ effect is an observation regarding the growth of IQ from one generation to
Cialidini’s Six key principles of influence
liking - person likes u they do what u want
recipricocity - u do for them they do for u
social proof- others doing
scarcity- make them think its limited
authority - obey
commitmen/ consistent - oral . written
Pre-encounter african americans view majority of Caucasians as more desirable and view doctor of this race as more skilled
immersion emersion: view majority of caucasians with resentment and distrust prefer treatments from others stage 3:
internalization: integrated aspects of his own culture with that of majority and work to rectify past racial injustices
cross nigrescence model