NTA NTC Mid-term

  1. Recognize and state a soundbite for each of the three "Big Ideas” in blood sugar regulation.
    • Big idea 1, Organs: Blood sugar regulation is controlled by the Central Nervous System's communication with PAALS. (Pancreas, Adrenals, Adipose tissue, Liver, Skeletal muscle)
    • The brain is the central organ in blood sugar regulation.
  2. Recognize and state a soundbite for each of the three "Big Ideas” in blood sugar regulation.
    Big idea 2, Emergency: Never before have we had the emergency need to lower blood sugar. The current consumption of processed refined foods, environmental toxicity and stress create this unique critical need.
  3. Recognize and state a soundbite for each of the three "Big Ideas” in blood sugar regulation.
    Big idea 3, Amount: The yearly consumption of over 174,000 metric tons of processed sugar worldwide, an average of 160 pounds per person per year in the U.S. is drastically effecting our health.
  4. Discuss the interaction of the pancreas, adrenals, adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle (PAALS), including influential hormones and physiological processes for blood sugar regulation and energy production.
    • Hormones: 1) Insulin: Released by the pancreas (beta cells) stimulates uptake of glucose into the cells.
    • 2)Glucagon: Pancreas hormone that tells the liver to release stored glycogen as glucose. Encourages stored amino acids to be converted to glucose. (Gluconeogenesis)
    • 3) Epinephrine/norepinephrine: adrenal hormones that are released from the adrenals in times of stress. Speed up heart and cause the liver to convert glycogen to glucose and send it the blood stream (Glycogenolysis)
    • 4) Cortisol: released by adrenals to keep blood sugar steady.
  5. The role of the pancreas in blood sugar regulation.
    • It is an endocrine (blood sugar reg) and exocrine (digestion) gland. It releases two blood sugar hormones: insulin and glucagon.
    • Insulin stores glucose by shuttling sugar (glucose) to the cells.
    • Glucagon releases glucose by waking up the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose to raise blood sugar levels and also to convert non carbohydrate sources such as amino acids into glucose. Gluconeogenysis.
  6. The role of adrenals in blood sugar regulation.
    • The three hormones are epinephrin, norepinephrine and cortisol.
    • Adrenals are used daily to tweak our blood sugar as needed but in times of stress and poor diet etc, they take a larger role and cause problems by causing your adrenals to burn out. (HPA axis)
  7. Function of adipose tissue in blood sugar regulation.
    Body fat cells store excess energy in the form of triglycerides for use at a later time. The pancreas releases glucagon to alert the liver that more glucose is needed. Lipids are converted to glucose for use in these situations.
  8. The liver's function in blood sugar regulation.
    • 1) When insulin is released by the pancreas, the liver converts glucose to glycogen for storage.(Glycogenesis)
    • 2)When glucagon is released by the pancreas, the liver converts stored glycogen back into glucose for use as fuel. It releases glucose via glycogenolysis.
    • 3) Also converts proteins (amino acids) into glucose via gluconeogenesis (non carbohydrate sources)
    • 4) Converts fatty acids to ketones for use as fuel.
  9. Skeletal muscles role in blood sugar regulation.
    Stores glycogen and provides protein platform for gluconeogenesis in the liver. Stores glucose for it's own use.
  10. Gluconeogenesis
    Formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources such as amino acids and lipids.
  11. Glycogen
    The stored form of glucose, stored in liver and skeletal muscles.
  12. Glycogenolysis
    Converting glycogen into glucose from the skeletal muscle and liver. Glucose stored in the muscle can only be used by the muscle.
  13. Glycolysis
    The breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid, which can be converted into ATP (Kreb's cycle)
  14. Glucose
    Blood sugar
  15. Glucagon
    Hormone secreted by the pancreas that stimulates the liver to increase blood sugar levels.
  16. Glycogenesis
    Formation of glycogen from glucose.
  17. Explain the role of the HPA axis in blood sugar regulation.
    • HPA= Hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenals (new term for adrenal fatigue)
    • When things go wrong, the system is overwhelmed. The hypothalamus tells the pituitary to release ACTH and the adrenals to release cortisol. Cortisol triggers glycogenolysis, glyconeogenesis and lipolysis to raise blood sugar.
  18. Explain the metabolic processes the body uses to convert each of the macronutrients into energy and recommend different fuel sources for different activities and situations.
    • Protein: Protein converts to ATP in two ways:
    • 1) It can be converted to glucose via glycogenesis, which can enter glycolysis.
    • 2) It can be oxidized into alpha-keto acids, which can enter the Kreb's Cycle. Protein should come from 100% grass-fed animals, pasture-raised poultry and eggs, and wild-caught fish.
  19. Explain the metabolic processes the body uses to convert each of the macronutrients into energy and recommend different fuel sources for different activities and situations.
    Fat: Lipolysis (converting fat to energy in the body) produces more ATP than glycolysis but it takes longer and requires the presence of oxygen. It is a slow long burn, like logs on a fire. Examples are:100% grass-fed animals, pasture-raised eggs, organic coconut oil, cold-pressed olive oil, organic avocados, etc.
  20. Explain the metabolic processes the body uses to convert each of the macronutrients into energy and recommend different fuel sources for different activities and situations.
    Carbohydrates: Carbs are like kindling, they burn fast and hot for high intensity needs. Carbs convert to ATP via glycolysis. Carbs are converted to pyruvate for the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle-CAC). m. Sweet potatoes, for example, are rich in manganese, a mineral that plays a key role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism.
  21. Explain how dietary and lifestyle choices, environmental toxicity, physiology, and other factors can negatively impact blood sugar regulation.
    • 1)Stress: Impacts body's ability optimally regulate blood sugar.
    • 2)Daily stress, improper diet impacts microbiome and deletion of nutrients.
    • 3)Toxins create oxidative stress.
    • Use of stimulant (coffee, alcohol) can also throw off blood sugar.
  22. Analyze an individual’s energy cycles and symptoms as indicators of blood sugar dysregulation.
    • 1) Compromised blood sugar regulation:  ↑ cravings for sugar, ↑ hunger, weight gain
    • 2) Hyperinsulinemia and reactive hypo-glycemia: fatigue, ↓ energy, irritability
    • 3) insulin resistance: ↑ hunger,  ↑
    •  lethargy,  ↑ grain fog,  ↑ BS,  ↑ BP
    • 4) metabolic syndrome: Abdominal obesity, systemic inflammation, ↑ BP
    • 5) Type 2 diabetes: extreme thirst, ↑ urination, fatigue, ↑ infection
  23. Recommend dietary and lifestyle changes based on bio-individual uniqueness that positively impact metabolic flexibility.
    • 1) Eat a balanced nutrient dense properly prepared whole food diet. Adjust Macros as needed to reduce insulin and glucose spikes.
    • 2) Reduce stress and change relationship to psychological stressors though mindfulness and meditation.
    • 3) Increase daily physical activity.
Author
gammyofnine
ID
347976
Card Set
NTA NTC Mid-term
Description
Blood Sugar Regulation Module Outcomes
Updated