Literary Devices 2

  1. -The device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning. In some ______, for example, an author may intend the characters to personify an abstraction lie hope or freedom. The _________ meaning usually deals with moral truth or a generalization about human existence.
  2. -The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonants in two or more neighboring words (as in "she sells sea shells"). The repetition can reinforce meaning, unify ideas, supply a musical sound, and/or echo the sense of the passage.
  3. -Repetition of vowel sounds.
  4. -A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. ______ can be historical, literary, religious, topical, or mythical. There are many more possibilities, and a work may simultaneously use multiple layers of ______.
  5. -The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, or a word, phrase, sentence, or passage.
  6. -A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them. An _______ can explain something unfamiliar by associating it with or pointing out its similarity to something more familiar. _______ can also make writing more vivid, imaginative, or intellectually engaging.

          *Metaphors and similes fall underneath it too!!!
  7. -One of the devices of repetition, in which the same expression (word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences.
  8. -A narrative detailing particulars of an interesting episode or event. The term most frequently refers to incident in the life of a person.
  9. -The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.
  10. -Figure of balance in which two contrasting ideas are intentionally juxtaposed through parallel structure; a contrasting of opposing ideas in adjacent phrases, clauses, or sentences.
    • Antithesis 
    •        *Creates a definite and systematic relationship between ideas!!!
  11. -A terse statement of know authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle. (If the authorship is unknown, the statement is generally considered to be a folk proverb.) An ______ can be a memorable summation of the author's point.
  12. -A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction. such as liberty or love. It is an address to someone or something that cannot answer. The effect is to give vent to or display intense emotion, which can no longer be held back.
  13. -Consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. This can give the effect of unpremeditated multiplicity, of an extemporaneous rather than a labored account. ______ lists can be more emphatic than if a final conjunction were used.
  14. The emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author's choice of objects that are described. Even such elements as description of the weather can contribute to the _________. Frequently ______ foreshadows events. Perhaps it can create a mood.
  15. -A figure of speech in which two successive phrases or clauses are parallel in syntax, but reverse the order of the analogous words.
  16. -A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb.

              *An independent, or main, clause expresses a complete thought and can sand alone as a sentence. A dependent, or subordinate clause cannot stand alone as a sentence and must be accompanied by an independent clause. The point that you want to consider is the question of what or why the author subordinates one element to the other. You should also become aware of making effective use of subordination in your own writing.
  17. -The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing. Not generally acceptable for formal writing, _________ give a work a conversational, familiar tone. _______ expressions in writing include local or regional dialects.
  18. -A principle demanding that the parts of any composition be arranged so that the meaning of the whole may be immediately clear and intelligible. Words, phrases, clauses within the sentence; and sentences, paragraphs, and chapters in larger pieces of writing are the unit that by their progressive and logical arrangement, make for _____.
  19. -A fanciful expression, usually in the form of an extended metaphor or surprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects. A conceit displays intellectual cleverness as a result of the unusual comparison being made.
  20. -The nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning. ____ may involve ideas, emotions, or attitudes.
  21. -The strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, devoid of any emotion attitude, or color.
  22. -Repetition of a word or phrase after an intervening word or phrase after an intervening word or phrase: word/phrase X….., word/phrase X.
  23. -Related to style, diction refers to the writer's word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, or effectiveness.

         *For the AP exam, you should be able to describe an author's diction (for example, formal or informal, ornate or plain) and understand the ways in which diction can complement the author's purpose. Diction, combined with syntax, figurative language, literary devices, etc., creates an author's style.
  24. -______ works have the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles.
  25. -Figure of amplification in which a subject is divided into constituent parts or details, and may include a listing of causes, effects, problems, solutions, conditions, and consequences; the listing or detailing of the parts of something.
  26. -Figure of emphasis in which a single word or short phrase, usually interrupting normal speech is used to lend emphasis to the words on either side of the expletive.
  27. -A more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept. The ______ may be sued to adhere to standards of social or political correctness or to add humor or ironic understatement.
  28. -In essays, one of the four chief types of composition, the others being argumentation, description, and narration. The purpose of exposition is to explain something. In drama, the exposition is the introductory material, which creates the tone, gives the setting, and introduces the characters and conflict.
  29. -A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout the work.
    Extended Metaphor
  30. -Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.
    Figurative language
  31. -A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. ______ include apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement.
    Figure of Speech
  32. -This term describes traditions for each genre. These conventions help to define each genre; for example, they differentiate an essay and journalistic writing or an autobiography and political writing.
    • Generic Conventions 
    •           *On the AP language exam, try to distinguish the unique features of a writer's work from those dictated by convention.
  33. -The major category in which a literary work fits.
    • Genre
    •         *The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama. However, genre is a flexible term; within these broad boundaries exist many subdivisions that are often called genres themselves. For example, prose can be divided into fiction (novels and short stories) or nonfiction (essays, biographies, autobiographies, etc.) Poetry can be divided into lyric dramatic, narrative, epic, etc. Drama can be divided into tragedy, comedy, melodrama, farce, etc.) ON the AP language exam, expect the majority of the passages to be from the following genres: autobiography, biography, diaries, criticism, essays, and journalistic, political, scientific, and nature writing.
  34. This term literally means "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
  35. -A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement. _______ often have a comic effect: however, a serious effect is also possible. Often, _____ produces irony.
  36. -Figure of reasoning in which one or more questions is/are asked and then answered, often at length, by one and the same speaker; raising and responding to one's own question(s). A common usage is to ask the question at the beginning of a paragraph and then use the paragraph to answer it. You can use ______ to raise questions which you think the reader obviously has on his/her mind and would like to see formulated and answered.
  37. -The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physical level, ______ uses terms related to the five senses; we refer to visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory ________. On a broader deeper level, however, one image can represent more than one thing. For example, a rose may present visual imagery while also representing the color in a woman's cheeks and/or symbolizing some degree of perfection (It is the highest flower on the Great Chain of Being). An author may use complex _______ while simultaneously employing other figures of speech, especially metaphor and simile. In addition, this term can apple to the total of all the images in a work. ON the AP exam, pay attention to how an author creates imagery and to the effect of this imagery.
Card Set
Literary Devices 2