
DEFINE absolute ceiling
The altitude where an airplane can no longer perform steady climb, max rate of climb is 0

DEFINE service ceiling
The altitude where an airplane can maintain a max rate of climb of only 100ft/min

DEFINE cruise ceiling
The altitude at which an airplane can maintain a maximum climb rate of only 300ft/min

DEFINE combat ceiling
The altitude where maximum power excess allows only 500ft/min rate of climb

DEFINE max operating ceiling
The maximum altitude an airplane can maintain equilibrium flight

STATE the maximum operating ceiling of the T6B
31,000 ft

DEFINE takeoff speed in terms of stall speed
The minimum airspeed for takeoff is 20% above the poweroff stall speed

DEFINE landing airspeed in terms of stall speed
Landing speed is 30% higher than stall speed; extra margin due to operation at low latitudes with a low power setting

STATE the various forces acting on an airplane during the takeoff transition
 Rolling Friction: accounts for the friction between the landing gear and the runway
 WeightonWheels reduces as an airplane generates lift, causing rolling friction to decrease.
 Net Accelerating Force: takeoff performance is dependent on acceleration. An airplane must overcome Rolling Friction and Drag.


STATE the various forces acting on an airplane during the landing transition
 Rolling Friction: accounts for the friction between the landing gear and the runway
 Net Decelerating Force: as Lift decreases, Weightonwheels increases.


STATE the various factors that determine the coefficient of rolling friction

 Runway Surface
 Runway Condition
 Tire Type
 Degree of Brake Application

DEFINE maximum angle of climb
 The greatest vertical distance for the shortest horizontal distance
  Greatest Excess Thrust

DEFINE maximum rate of climb
 The highest altitude in the shortest amount of time
  Greatest Excess Power

STATE the relationship between fuel flow, power available, power required, and velocity
 Minimum fuel flow occurs at minimum Power Required for a turboprop
 Minimum fuel flow per unite of velocity is where a line from the origin is tangent to the Power Required curve

DEFINE maximum range
Maximum distance traveled over the ground for a given amount of fuel

DEFINE maximum endurance
maximum amount of time that an airplane can remain airborne for a given amount of fuel


DEFINE critical Mach
the lowest airspeed for a specific aircraft that produces the first evidence of supersonic air somewhere on the aircraft

STATE the effects of altitude on Mach number and critical Mach
 Dependent on Temperature
 increase ALT = decrease T
 decrease T= decrease LSOS
 decrease LSOS = increase Mach

DEFINE maximum glide range
 Max GR is the farthest horizontal distance that an aircraft with an engine failure can travel before impact
 Fly at minimum glide angle
 Thrust deficit/weight

DEFINE maximum glide endurance
 Max GE is the longest time that an aircraft with an engine failure can stay airborne before impact
 Minimize rate of descent
 Power deficit/weight

DEFINE nose wheel liftoff/touchdown speed
 The minimum airspeed at which the nose wheel must return to the runway following a landing, or
 The minimum safe airspeed that the nose wheel may leave the runway during takeoff

STATE the pilot speed and attitude inputs necessary to control the airplane during a crosswind landing
 Rudder: the primary directional tool
 Place ailerons and rudder into the wind

STATE the crosswind limits for the T6B
25kts for takeoff or landing

DEFINE hydroplaning
Causes the airplane's tires to skim on top of a thin layer of water on the runway (excess of .1in of standing water)

STATE the factors that affect the speed at which an airplane will hydroplane
 Higher tire pressure, higher the hydroplane speed
 Deep threads/channels on tire may differ speeds

DEFINE turn radius
Measure of the radius of the circle the flight path scribes

DEFINE turn rate
The rate of heading change in degrees per second

DEFINE load
 Stressproducing force that is imposed upon an airplane or component
 Equal to weight during straight and level flight

DEFINE load factor
Ratio of total lift to the airplane's weight

DEFINE limit load factor
Greatest load factor an airplane can sustain without any risk of permanent deformation (2/3 of ultimate load factor)

DEFINE ultimate load factor
Maximum load factor that the airplane can withstand without structural failure (1.5 times the limit load factor)

DEFINE static strength
A material's resistance to a steady increasing load or force

DEFINE static failure
Breaking or serious permanent deformation of a material due to a steadily increasing load or force

DEFINE fatigue strength
A material's ability to withstand a cyclic application of load or force

DEFINE fatigue failure
Breaking or serious deformation of a material due to cyclic application

DEFINE service life
Number of application of load or force that a component can withstand before it has the probability of failing

DEFINE creep
When a metal stretches or elongates due to heat and high stress

DEFINE overstress/overG
A condition of possible permanent deformation or damage that results from exceeding the limit load factor

DEFINE maneuvering speed
 The point where the accelerated stall line and the limit load factor line intersect.
 The lowest airspeed at which the limit load factor can be reached

DEFINE cornering velocity
 The point where the accelerated stall line and the limit load factor line intersect.
 The lowest airspeed at which the limit load factor can be reached

CDEFINE redline airspeed
 The highest airspeed that an airplane is allowed to fly.
 Neverexceed Velocity

DEFINE accelerated stall lines
 Lines of maximum lift
 The maximum load factor that an airplane can produce based on airspeed.

DEFINE the safe flight envelope
 Defines an aircraft's capabilities and limitations based on velocity and load factor
 Affected by: Gust Loading, Weight, Altitude, Configuration, and Asymmetric Loading

DEFINE asymmetric loading
The uneven production of lift on the wings of an airplane.

STATE the associated asymmetric loading limitations for the T6B
+4.7 to 1.0Gs

DEFINE static stability
The initial tendency of an object to move forward or away from its original equilibrium position

DEFINE dynamic stability
The position with respect to time, or motion of an object after a disturbance

STATE the methods for increasing an airplane's maneuverability
 Weak stability: harder to control in equilibrium
 Larger control surfaces: generate large movements

STATE the effects of airplane components on an airplane's longitudinal static stability
 IF component's AC is forward of the plane's CG, it is destabilizing
 Straight wings have a destabilizing effect: swept forward wings even more
 Fuselage is a negative contributor
 The Horizontal Stabilizer is the greatest positive contributor of longitudinal stability: extremely long moment arm
 Aircraft is longitudinally stable if when a disturbance causes pitch up or down, it generates its own forces and moments to correct itself

STATE the effects of airplane components on an airplane's directional static stability
 Straight wings have a small positive effect on directional static stability
 Swept wings have a small stabilizing effect
 The Fuselage is a negative contributor
 Vertical Stabilizer is the greatest positive contributor: extremely long moment arm
 Aircraft is directionally stable if when a disturbance causes a yaw left or right, it generates its own forces and moments to correct itself

STATE the effects of airplane components on an airplane's lateral static stability
 Dihedral wings are the greatest positive contributor
 High mounted wings: positive contributor
 Low mounted wings: negative contributor
 Swept wings are laterally stabilizing
 Vertical Stabilizer is a major contributor to positive lateral static stability
 Aircraft is laterally stable when a disturbance causes roll left or right, it generates its own forces and moments to correct itself.

STATE the static stability requirements for, and the effects of, directional divergence
 Directional divergences is a condition of flight in which the reaction to a small sideslip results in an unease in sideslip angle.
 Requirements: Negative directional stability, damaged /inoperable rudder

STATE the static stability requirements for, and the effects of, spiral divergences
 Requirements: Strong Directional Stability, Weak Lateral Stability
 Effects: Causes wing to dip  strong directional stability tries to yaw into wing, senses RW coming from that direction and yaws more into it

STATE the static stability requirements for, and the effects of, Dutch roll
 Requirements: Strong Lateral Stability, Weak Directional Stability
 Effects: Slow "tail wagging" at appx same ALT

DEFINE proverse roll
 The tendency of an airplane to roll in the same direction as it is yawing  very pronounced on swept wings
 When an airplane yaws , the advancing wing produces more lift and causes a roll into the direction of the yaw

DEFINE adverse yaw
 The tendency of an airplane to yaw away from the direction of aileron roll input
 When rolling, the upgoing wing produces more in lift and more induced drag  yawed away from the roll

DEFINE asymmetric thrust
 Multiengine aircraft ONLY
 One engine inoperable, causes a yaw in the direction away from the inoperable engine
 Farther engines from the aircraft's longitudinal axis, the more severe the yaw is

