2-4 Performance & Maneuvering

  1. DEFINE absolute ceiling
    The altitude where an airplane can no longer perform steady climb, max rate of climb is 0
  2. DEFINE service ceiling
    The altitude where an airplane can maintain a max rate of climb of only 100ft/min
  3. DEFINE cruise ceiling
    The altitude at which an airplane can maintain a maximum climb rate of only 300ft/min
  4. DEFINE combat ceiling
    The altitude where maximum power excess allows only 500ft/min rate of climb
  5. DEFINE max operating ceiling
    The maximum altitude an airplane can maintain equilibrium flight
  6. STATE the maximum operating ceiling of the T-6B
    31,000 ft
  7. DEFINE takeoff speed in terms of stall speed
    The minimum airspeed for takeoff is 20% above the power-off stall speed

    chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=V_T_O%20%3D%201.2%20%5Csqrt%20%7B%20%5Cfrac%20%7B2W%7D%7B%5Crho%20S%20C_L_M_A_X%7D%7D&chs=336x92     chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=IAS_T_O%20%3D%201.2%20%5Csqrt%20%7B%20%5Cfrac%20%7B2W%7D%7B%5Crho_0%20S%20C_L_M_A_X%7D%7D&chs=392x96
  8. DEFINE landing airspeed in terms of stall speed
    Landing speed is 30% higher than stall speed; extra margin due to operation at low latitudes with a low power setting

    chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=V_L_D_G%20%3D%201.3%20%5Csqrt%20%7B%20%5Cfrac%20%7B2W%7D%7B%5Crho%20S%20C_L_M_A_X%7D%7D&chs=358x92    chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=IAS_L_D_G%20%3D%201.3%20%5Csqrt%20%7B%20%5Cfrac%20%7B2W%7D%7B%5Crho_0%20S%20C_L_M_A_X%7D%7D&chs=414x96
  9. STATE the various forces acting on an airplane during the takeoff transition
    • Rolling Friction: accounts for the friction between the landing gear and the runway
    • Weight-on-Wheels reduces as an airplane generates lift, causing rolling friction to decrease.
    • Net Accelerating Force: takeoff performance is dependent on acceleration. An airplane must overcome Rolling Friction and Drag.
    •       chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=Net%20Accelerating%20Force%20%3D%20T%20-%20D%20-%20F_R&chs=578x38
  10. STATE the various forces acting on an airplane during the landing transition
    • Rolling Friction: accounts for the friction between the landing gear and the runway
    • Net Decelerating Force: as Lift decreases, Weight-on-wheels increases.
    •       chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=Net%20Decelerating%20Force%20%3D%20D%2BF_R-T&chs=572x36
  11. STATE the various factors that determine the coefficient of rolling friction
    • chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=F_R%20%3D%20%5Cmu%20(%20W-L%20)&chs=230x38
    • Runway Surface
    • Runway Condition
    • Tire Type
    • Degree of Brake Application
  12. DEFINE maximum angle of climb
    • The greatest vertical distance for the shortest horizontal distance
    •      - Greatest Excess Thrust
  13. DEFINE maximum rate of climb
    • The highest altitude in the shortest amount of time
    •      - Greatest Excess Power
  14. STATE the relationship between fuel flow, power available, power required, and velocity
    • Minimum fuel flow occurs at minimum Power Required for a turboprop
    • Minimum fuel flow per unite of velocity is where a line from the origin is tangent to the Power Required curve
  15. DEFINE maximum range
    Maximum distance traveled over the ground for a given amount of fuel
  16. DEFINE maximum endurance
    maximum amount of time that an airplane can remain airborne for a given amount of fuel
  17. DEFINE mach number
    chart?chf=bg,s,00000000&cht=tx&chl=Mach%20%3D%20%5Cfrac%20%7BTAS%7D%7BLSOS%7D&chs=222x68
  18. DEFINE critical Mach
    the lowest airspeed for a specific aircraft that produces the first evidence of supersonic air somewhere on the aircraft
  19. STATE the effects of altitude on Mach number and critical Mach
    • Dependent on Temperature
    • increase ALT = decrease T
    • decrease T= decrease LSOS
    • decrease LSOS = increase Mach
  20. DEFINE maximum glide range
    • Max GR is the farthest horizontal distance that an aircraft with an engine failure can travel before impact
    • Fly at minimum glide angle
    • Thrust deficit/weight
  21. DEFINE maximum glide endurance
    • Max GE is the longest time that an aircraft with an engine failure can stay airborne before impact
    • Minimize rate of descent
    • Power deficit/weight
  22. DEFINE nose wheel liftoff/touchdown speed
    • The minimum airspeed at which the nose wheel must return to the runway following a landing, or
    • The minimum safe airspeed that the nose wheel may leave the runway during takeoff
  23. STATE the pilot speed and attitude inputs necessary to control the airplane during a crosswind landing
    • Rudder: the primary directional tool
    • Place ailerons and rudder into the wind
  24. STATE the crosswind limits for the T-6B
    25kts for takeoff or landing
  25. DEFINE hydroplaning
    Causes the airplane's tires to skim on top of a thin layer of water on the runway (excess of .1in of standing water)
  26. STATE the factors that affect the speed at which an airplane will hydroplane
    • Higher tire pressure, higher the hydroplane speed
    • Deep threads/channels on tire may differ speeds
  27. DEFINE turn radius
    Measure of the radius of the circle the flight path scribes
  28. DEFINE turn rate
    The rate of heading change in degrees per second
  29. DEFINE load
    • Stress-producing force that is imposed upon an airplane or component
    • Equal to weight during straight and level flight
  30. DEFINE load factor
    Ratio of total lift to the airplane's weight
  31. DEFINE limit load factor
    Greatest load factor an airplane can sustain without any risk of permanent deformation (2/3 of ultimate load factor)
  32. DEFINE ultimate load factor
    Maximum load factor that the airplane can withstand without structural failure (1.5 times the limit load factor)
  33. DEFINE static strength
    A material's resistance to a steady increasing load or force
  34. DEFINE static failure
    Breaking or serious permanent deformation of a material due to a steadily increasing load or force
  35. DEFINE fatigue strength
    A material's ability to withstand a cyclic application of load or force
  36. DEFINE fatigue failure
    Breaking or serious deformation of a material due to cyclic application
  37. DEFINE service life
    Number of application of load or force that a component can withstand before it has the probability of failing
  38. DEFINE creep
    When a metal stretches or elongates due to heat and high stress
  39. DEFINE overstress/over-G
    A condition of possible permanent deformation or damage that results from exceeding the limit load factor
  40. DEFINE maneuvering speed
    • The point where the accelerated stall line and the limit load factor line intersect.
    • The lowest airspeed at which the limit load factor can be reached
  41. DEFINE cornering velocity
    • The point where the accelerated stall line and the limit load factor line intersect.
    • The lowest airspeed at which the limit load factor can be reached
  42. CDEFINE redline airspeed
    • The highest airspeed that an airplane is allowed to fly.
    • Never-exceed Velocity
  43. DEFINE accelerated stall lines
    • Lines of maximum lift
    • The maximum load factor that an airplane can produce based on airspeed.
  44. DEFINE the safe flight envelope
    • Defines an aircraft's capabilities and limitations based on velocity and load factor
    • Affected by: Gust Loading, Weight, Altitude, Configuration, and Asymmetric Loading
  45. DEFINE asymmetric loading
    The uneven production of lift on the wings of an airplane.
  46. STATE the associated asymmetric loading limitations for the T-6B
    +4.7 to -1.0Gs
  47. DEFINE static stability
    The initial tendency of an object to move forward or away from its original equilibrium position
  48. DEFINE dynamic stability
    The position with respect to time, or motion of an object after a disturbance
  49. STATE the methods for increasing an airplane's maneuverability
    • Weak stability: harder to control in equilibrium 
    • Larger control surfaces: generate large movements
  50. STATE the effects of airplane components on an airplane's longitudinal static stability
    • IF component's AC is forward of the plane's CG, it is destabilizing
    • Straight wings have a destabilizing effect: swept forward wings even more
    • Fuselage is a negative contributor
    • The Horizontal Stabilizer is the greatest positive contributor of longitudinal stability: extremely long moment arm
    • Aircraft is longitudinally stable if when a disturbance causes pitch up or down, it generates its own forces and moments to correct itself
  51. STATE the effects of airplane components on an airplane's directional static stability
    • Straight wings have a small positive effect on directional static stability
    • Swept wings have a small stabilizing effect
    • The Fuselage is a negative contributor
    • Vertical Stabilizer is the greatest positive contributor: extremely long moment arm
    • Aircraft is directionally stable if when a disturbance causes a yaw left or right, it generates its own forces and moments to correct itself
  52. STATE the effects of airplane components on an airplane's lateral static stability
    • Dihedral wings are the greatest positive contributor
    • High mounted wings: positive contributor
    • Low mounted wings: negative contributor
    • Swept wings are laterally stabilizing
    • Vertical Stabilizer is a major contributor to positive lateral static stability
    • Aircraft is laterally stable when a disturbance causes roll left or right, it generates its own forces and moments to correct itself.
  53. STATE the static stability requirements for, and the effects of, directional divergence
    • Directional divergences is a condition of flight in which the reaction to a small sideslip results in an unease in sideslip angle.
    • Requirements: Negative directional stability, damaged /inoperable rudder
  54. STATE the static stability requirements for, and the effects of, spiral divergences
    • Requirements: Strong Directional Stability, Weak Lateral Stability
    • Effects: Causes wing to dip - strong directional stability tries to yaw into wing, senses RW coming from that direction and yaws more into it
  55. STATE the static stability requirements for, and the effects of, Dutch roll
    • Requirements: Strong Lateral Stability, Weak Directional Stability
    • Effects: Slow "tail wagging" at appx same ALT
  56. DEFINE proverse roll
    • The tendency of an airplane to roll in the same direction as it is yawing -- very pronounced on swept wings
    • When an airplane yaws , the advancing wing produces more lift and causes a roll into the direction of the yaw
  57. DEFINE adverse yaw
    • The tendency of an airplane to yaw away from the direction of aileron roll input
    • When rolling, the up-going wing produces more in lift and more induced drag -- yawed away from the roll
  58. DEFINE asymmetric thrust
    • Multi-engine aircraft ONLY
    • One engine inoperable, causes a yaw in the direction away from the inoperable engine
    • Farther engines from the aircraft's longitudinal axis, the more severe the yaw is
Author
keggeler
ID
347725
Card Set
2-4 Performance & Maneuvering
Description
API Aerodynamics 2017 Edition
Updated