kupinski reading

  1. arteries carry
    blood rich in nutrients and oxygen from the heart out to the various organs and tissue bed
  2. veins return
    deoxygenated blood with waste materials back towards the heart.
  3. arteries and veins have three layers called the
    • tunica adventitia¬†
    • tunica media
    • tunica intima
  4. venules are the
    smallest component of the venous system, most connective tissue
  5. veins have
    valves covered by endothelial cells.
  6. capillaries are the
    smallest vessel in the body. nutrient exchange
  7. carotid bulb
    a slight dilation involving variable portions of the distal common and proximal internal carotid arteries. this is where the baroreceptors assisting in reflex blood pressure control are located
  8. subclavian steal
    in the event of a brachiocephalic or subclavian artery occlusion, collateral flow can enter the distal subclavian artery via the vertebral artery.
  9. spectral broadening
    increase in width of the spectral waveform. filling in
  10. tortuosity
    the quality of being tortuous, winding, turning, twisting
  11. intimal flap
    a small tear in the wall of a blood vessel resulting in a portion of the intima and part of the media protruding into the lumen of the vessel
  12. NASCET method
    North American symptomatic carotid endarterectomy trial a criteria for identifying a  70% or greater internal carotid stenosis. measuring stenosis
  13. the distal vertebral arteries form the
    basilar artery
  14. the basilar artery supplies
    blood to the posterior hemispheres of the brain via the posterior cerebral arteries
  15. the circle of willis lies at
    the base of the brain and distributes flow to all hemispheres. the main perfusion to the lateral hemispheres is via the middle cerebral arteries (MCA). these arise from the terminus of the ICA (TICA)
  16. the small posterior communicating arteries PCoA arise from
    the PCAs and connect with the proximal MCAs or distal ICAs
  17. the anterior communicating arteries ACoA connect the
    left and right ACAs
  18. the thyroid should be located at the
    right of the CCA on the transverse when scanning the patient's right side.
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kupinski reading
kupinski reading