1. Cell Theory
  2. 1. All organisms are composed of cells.
    • 2. Cells are the smallest living things.
    • 3. Cells arise only from pre-existing cells.
    • All cells today represent a continuous line of descent from the first living cells.
    • Cell size is limited.
    • -As cell size increases, it takes longer for material to diffuse from the cell membrane to the interior of the cell.
    • Surface area-to-volume ratio: as a cell increases in size, the volume increases 10x faster than the surface area
  3. Light microscopes
  4. can resolve structures that are 200nm apart.
  5. Electron microscopes
  6. can resolve structures that are 0.2nm apart
  7. All cells have certain structures in common.
    • 1. genetic material – in a nucleoid or nucleus
    • 2. cytoplasm – a semifluid matrix
    • 3. plasma membrane – a phospholipid bilayer
  8. Prokaryotic Cells
  9. Prokaryotic cells lack a membrane-bound nucleus.
  10. Two types of prokaryotes:
  11. -archaea
  12. Prokaryotic cells possess
  13. -genetic material in the nucleoid
    • -cytoplasm
    • -plasma membrane
    • -cell wall
    • -ribosomes
    • -no membrane-bound organelles
  14. Prokaryotic cell walls

    Bacterial cell walls

    Archaean cell walls
    -protect the cell and maintain cell shape

    • -may be composed of peptidoglycan
    • -may be Gram positive or Gram negative

    -lack peptidoglycan.
  15. Flagella
  16. -present in some prokaryotic cells
    • -used for locomotion
    • -rotary motion propels the cell
  17. Eukaryotic cells
  18. -possess a membrane-bound nucleus
    • -are more complex than prokaryotic cells
    • -compartmentalize many cellular functions within organelles and the endomembrane system
    • -possess a cytoskeleton for support and to maintain cellular structure
  19. Nucleus
  20. -stores the genetic material of the cell in the form of multiple, linear chromosomes
    • -surrounded by a nuclear envelope composed of 2 phospholipid bilayers
    • -in chromosomes – DNA is organized with proteins to form chromatin
  21. Ribosomes
  22. -the site of protein synthesis in the cell
    • -composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins
    • -found within the cytosol of the cytoplasm and attached to internal membranes
  23. Endomembrane system
    • -a series of membranes throughout the cytoplasm
    • -divides cell into compartments where different cellular functions occur
    • 1. endoplasmic reticulum
    • 2. Golgi apparatus
    • 3. lysosomes
  24. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
  25. -membranes that create a network of channels throughout the cytoplasm
    • -attachment of ribosomes to the membrane gives a rough appearance
    • -synthesis of proteins to be secreted, sent to lysosomes or plasma membrane
  26. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
  27. -relatively few ribosomes attached
    • -functions:
    • -synthesis of membrane lipids
    • -calcium storage
    • -detoxification of foreign substances
  28. Golgi apparatus
  29. -flattened stacks of interconnected membranes
    • -packaging and distribution of materials to different parts of the cell
    • -synthesis of cell wall components
  30. Lysosomes
  31. -membrane bound vesicles containing digestive enzymes to break down macromolecules
    -destroy cells or foreign matter that the cell has engulfed by phagocytosis
  32. Microbodies
    • -membrane bound vesicles
    • -contain enzymes
    • -not part of the endomembrane system
    • -glyoxysomes in plants contain enzymes for converting fats to carbohydrates
    • -peroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes and catalase
  33. Vacuoles
  34. -membrane-bound structures with various functions depending on the cell type
  35. There are different types of vacuoles:
  36. -central vacuole in plant cells
    • -contractile vacuole of some protists
    • -vacuoles for storage
  37. Mitochondria
    • -organelles present in all types of eukaryotic cells
    • -contain oxidative metabolism enzymes for transferring the energy within macromolecules to ATP
    • -found in all types of eukaryotic cells
    • -surrounded by 2 membranes
    • -smooth outer membrane
    • -folded inner membrane with layers called cristae
    • -matrix is within the inner membrane
    • -intermembrane space is located between the two membranes-contain their own DNA
  38. Chloroplasts
    • -organelles present in cells of plants and some other eukaryotes
    • -contain chlorophyll for photosynthesis
    • -surrounded by 2 membranes
    • -thylakoids are membranous sacs within the inner membrane
    • -grana are stacks of thylakoids
  39. Endosymbiosis
    • -proposal that eukaryotic organelles evolved through a symbiotic relationship
    • -one cell engulfed a second cell and a symbiotic relationship developed
    • -mitochondria and chloroplasts are thought to have evolved this way
  40. Mitochondria and chloroplasts:
  41. -have 2 membranes
    • -possess DNA and ribosomes
    • -are about the size of a prokaryotic cell
    • -divide by a process similar to bacteria
  42. Cytoskeleton
    • -network of protein fibers found in all eukaryotic cells
    • -supports the shape of the cell
    • -keeps organelles in fixed locations
    • -helps move materials within the cell
  43. Cytoskeleton fibers include
    • -actin filaments – responsible for cellular contractions, crawling, "pinching"
    • -microtubules – provide organization to the cell and move materials within the cell
    • -intermediate filaments – provide structural stability
  44. Cell movement takes different forms.
    • -Crawling is accomplished via actin filaments and the protein myosin.
    • -Flagella undulate to move a cell.
    • -Cilia can be arranged in rows on the surface of a eukaryotic cell to propel a cell forward.
  45. The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells have a similar structure:
    • -9-2 structure: 9 pairs of microtubules surrounded by a 2 central microtubules
    • -Cilia are usually more numerous than flagella on a cell.
  46. Extracellular structures include:
  47. -cell walls of plants, fungi, some protists
    -extracellular matrix surrounding animal cells
  48. Cell walls
    • -present surrounding the cells of plants, fungi, and some protists
    • -the carbohydrates present in the cell wall vary depending on the cell type:
    • -plant and protist cell walls - cellulose
    • -fungal cell walls - chitin
  49. Extracellular matrix (ECM)
    • -surrounds animal cells
    • -composed of glycoproteins and fibrous proteins such as collagen
    • -may be connected to the cytoplasm via integrin proteins present in the plasma membrane
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