Cellular Metabolism (not lipoproteins)

  1. What is the attachment of a phosphate group to another molecule called?
  2. What is the most important method of energy storage in our cells?
    The conversion of ADP to ATP
  3. The most important method of energy release is...
    the reversion of ATP to ADP
  4. What enzyme is needed for the conversion of ATP to ADP?
    Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)
  5. Which of the following is not a high energy compound?

    D. All are high energy compounds (all high-energy compounds that transfer energy in specific enzymatic reactions)
  6. A high-energy compound consisting of adenosine to which 3 phosphate groups are attached
  7. What molecule is produced by the phosphorylation of ADP?
  8. How many kcal/mole of energy is released when hydrolysis of terminal phosphate of ATP occurs?

    A. ~7.3kcal/mole of energy
  9. T/F Red Blood Cells (RBC) have a mitochondria
  10. What inside a mitochondria increases surface area?
    Cristae (the FOLDS)
  11. What is the name of the "Liquid” inside the inner membrane where TCA cycle takes place?
  12. Membranous organelle producing ATP; Powerplant of the cell
  13. Sum of all synthesis reactions
  14. Why do cells synthesize new organic molecules?
    • Cell growth
    • Maintance
    • Repair &
    • Synthesis of energy reserves (glycogen, proteins)
  15. What is the storage form of glucose?
  16. What is the storage form of individual amino acids?
  17. Smaller molecules --> Larger molecules
  18. Sum of all decomposition reactions
  19. Larger molecules --> Smaller molecules
  20. When products go into a "NUTRIENT POOL" (ie. mashpoleggos) what can occur?
    • -Anabolism (make new molecules)
    • -Futher Catabolism in mitochondria
  21. Catabolism in mitochondria 40% is used for ATP SYNTHESIS and 60% LOST AS HEAT
    FYI not really lost as heat... its used to maintain our temperatures!!!
  22. All Chemical Reactions occuring in organism
  23. Anabolism + Catabolism =
  24. What is in the center of all the chemical reactions in the body?
    TCA aka Kreb cycle
  25. What is the mitochondria's preferred energy source?
  26. What is the only fuel that the brain uses under NORMAL conditions aka NON-starvation conditions
  27. What is te only fuel that our red blood cells use?
  28. What is the SECOND favorite energy source?
  29. What is the THIRD favorite energy source?
  30. NAME the following preferred energy sources in order (1 being the most favorite and 3 the least)
    • 1. Glucose
    • 2. Triglycerides
    • 3. Proteins
  31. What is the source of glucose?
    Diet and Glycogen stores (in the liver)
  32. What is the source of Triglycerides?
    Diet and triglyceride sotres (adipocytes)
  33. What is the source of proteins?
    Diet and protein stores BUT ONLY UNDER DURESS ***muscle
  34. Name all the processes involved in cellular respiration
    • Glycolysis
    • TCA prep
    • TCA cycle
    • Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
  35. What is used in cellular respiration to convert organic molecules into CO2 & H2O in order to create energy?
  36. The use of O2 to convert organic molecules into CO2 & H2O (by removing electrons) in order to create energy is known as...
  37. O2 is needed indirectly or directly for which of the following(can have more than 1 answer)

    A. TCA Prep and c. TCA cycle (glycolysis doesnt need oxygen and ETC requires it DIRECTLY)
  38. Non-protein, organic molecules; usually vitamins
    Carry Hydrogen atoms (H) released during cellular respiration
  39. H atom consists of...
    proton (H+) + electron (e-)
  40. Which of the two is the OXIDIZED form?
    a. NAD+
    b. NADH
    a. NAD+
  41. Where does Glycolysis occur?
    in the Cytoplasm
  42. How many ATPs does FADH2 make?
    2 ATPs because it is ONLY made in the mitochondria
  43. How many ATPs are made by NADH during GLYCOLYSIS?
    only 2 ATPs
  44. How many pyruvate at the end of glycolysis?
  45. Pyruvic acid = Pyruvate (same thing)
  46. During glycolysis 1 glucose is converted into ____ pyruvate
    TWO (2) pyruvate
  47. During Glycolysis 6 Carbon is converted into
    2 @3 Carbon
  48. 4 ATP are generated from glycolysis... but how many did you start with?
    2 ATPs are needed to begin
  49. How many ATPs does 2 NADH make?
    4 ATPs
  50. What do the 2 pyruvates have to be converted into to enter TCA?
    2 Acetyl CoA
  51. How many ATPs are made during the TCA prep cycle?
  52. 2 Acetyl CoA is made by Coenzyme A combining with what?
    2 Acetyl Groups (CH3CO)
  53. Where does the TCA cycle occur?
    in the mitochondria matrix
  54. During TCA cycle.... Citric acid (6C) is made by coming acetyl group with ____
    Oxaloacetic acid (4C)
  55. Acetyl group combines with oxaloacetic acid (4C) --> citric acid (6C)
    FIRST STEP OF TCA CYCLE (for some reason... a bigger molecule is made first????)
  56. Why is oxygen indirectly needed during the TCA cycle?
    The TCA cycle needs NAD+ and this depends on oxygen.
  57. TCA Cycle : 2 cycles/glucose molecule
  58. How is ATP made?
  59. TCA cycle "pay-o-la"

    4 CO2
    6 NADH
    2 FADH2
    and how many ATPs?
    2 ATPs (from GTP)
  60. What is the substrate level phosphorylation of the TCA cycle?
    GTP broken down to GDP (energy released)… a phosphate bond was broken and from that ATP is formed
  61. What are the two different phosphorylation types that make ATP
    Substrate level Phosphorylation and Oxidative Phosphorylation
  62. Which type of phosphorylation reaction makes more ATP?
    Oxidative phosphorylation
  63. Which enzyme is involved in oxidative phosphorylation?
    ATP synthase
  64. a simple reaction that makes huge amounts of energy... (rocket science)
    2 H2 + O2 ---> 2 H2O
  65. Highly exergonic reaction that must be dispersed over a series of small, controlled steps (in the ETC)
    2 H2 + O2 ---> 2 H2O
  66. What produces more than 90% of all the ATP made?
    Electron Transport Chain... (ETC)
  67. Electron Transport Chain... where does it occur?
    Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
  68. ETC players:

    •NADH & FADH2 from Glycolysis TCA prep & TCA
    •Proteins of the ETC: Coenzymes & cytochromes transfer electrons through a series of
    oxidation-reduction reactions. Some can act as H+ pumps
    • Oxygen: final electron acceptor
  69. What is the final electron acceptor in the Electron Transport Chain?
  70. Which of the following cycle does the NADH and FADH2 in the ETC come from?

    D. All the above (NADH and FADH2 comes from Glycolysis, TCA prep, and TCA)
  71. Eletron Transport Chain Summary:

    NADH & FADH2 both carry 2 H atoms
    & therefore release 2 electrons
    REMEMBER :Before ETC starts there are 10 NADH and 2 FADH2 that are accumulated
  72. AGAIN... what is the oxidized form of NADH and FADH2
    NAD+ & FAD ...because in oxidation they give up their HYDROGEN :)
  73. Hydrogen ions in the intermembrane space is POTENTIAL energy (ready to make ATP)
  74. When the electrons are transfered into the ETC what type of energy is it giving to the proteins?
    KINETIC energy... (like a hot potato) which then ENERGIZES the protein it then gets REDUCED and then its able to pump Hydrogen ions out of the intermembrane
  75. Proteins in complex I and complex II are reduced in the INNERmembrane by the electrons and this cause it to ENERGIZED and be able to pump out HYDROGEN IONS into the INTERmembrane space
  76. In ETC electrons enter and protons pumped out into the Intermembrane space ...HENCE ELECTRON transport chain :)
  77. How many membranes in the Mitochodria? What are there names?
    Outer membrane and Inner membrane (and the space in between is the INTERmembrane space)
  78. Where are the protons pumped during ETC?
    into the INTERmembrane Space
  79. Proteins of the ETC:
    Which ones accept H atoms (& become reduced) from NADH & FADH2
  80. Proteins of the ETC:
    Which one receives 2H atoms from NADH. Transfers 2e- to Coenzyme Q and pumps 2H+ into intermembrane space
  81. Proteins of the ETC:
    Receives 2H atoms from FADH2 and transfers 2e- to CO Q and 2H+ released (NOT PUMPED)
    Complex II
  82. Proteins of the ETC:
    Receives e- from Complex I and Complex II and passed them to cytochromes
    Coenzyme Q
  83. Proteins of the ETC:
    Carries electrons and becomes reduced.
    Reduced/energized cytochrome complexes act as H+ pumps
  84. Which of the two Complex is also a hydrogen pump?
  85. Does complex II act as a pump?
    NOPE!!!! (it releases 2 H+... doesnt PUMP it out)
  86. Which of the following Proteins of the ETC act as H+?
    Complex I , Complex II, Coenzyme Q and/or Cytochrome
  87. For every NADH that comes into the ETC 6 H ions are pumped out

    How about FADH2?
    for every FADH2 4 hydrogen ions pumped out
  88. Approximately for every 6 Hydrogen ions we are going to yield 3 ATPs
  89. The ETC does not directly produce ATP

    Q: What does it produce?
    Hydrogen Ion Gradient
  90. Quick Overview: GLYCOLYSIS
    • Conversion of glucose to pyruvate via using 2 ATPs
    • Creation of 2 ATP and 2 NADH
  91. Quick Overview: TriCarboxylic Acid Prep (TCA Prep)
    • Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA; creating CO2
    • Creation of 2 NADH
  92. Quick Overview: TriCarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA Cycle)
    • It is also known as KREB cycle, Citric Acid Cycle
    • Cycling of acetyl CoA; removing electrons making H2O and CO2
    • Creation of 2 ATPs, 6 NADH and 2 FADH2
  93. Quick Overview: Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
    • Removal of Hydrogens from 10 NADH and 2 FADH2
    • Hydrogens separated into electron and protons
    • Transfer of electrons to oxygen and Hydrogen ions pumped into intermembrane space
    • Diffusion of protons activate ATP synthase
    • Conversion of ADP + Pi to ATP
  94. The four main steps of cellular respiration in order
    • 1. Glycolysis
    • 2. TCA Prep
    • 3. TCA
    • 4. Electron Transport Chain
  95. For every NADH produced during the TCA prep cycle and TCA cycles you get 3 ATPS because....
    it takes place in the mitochondria
  96. Out of ONE (1) glucose molecule how many ATPs do you get?
    • 36
    • (2 from glycolysis... 2 from TCA... thats 4 so far
    • then 2 NADH (makes 4 ATP) from glycolysis
    • then 2 NADH (makes 6 ATP) from TCA prep
    • then 6 NADH (makes 18 ATP) from TCA
    • then 2 FADH (makes 4 ATP) from TCA..... 36 TOTAL)
  97. Another name for anaerobic glycolysis?
    lactic acid fermentation
  98. How many ATPs made during lactic acid fermentation?
    only 2 ATPs
  99. Anaerobic Glycolysis:
    Glycolysis can proceed in the absence of O2
    -toxic lactic acid is produced in order to make NAD+
    Yield: only 2 ATP (vs. 36)
  100. Metabolic Vocab:
    Glucose to pyruvate
  101. Metabolic vocab:
    Glucose to glycogen: glucose thats not used is stored in the liver/muscle, requires UTP
  102. Metabolic Vocab:
    Fat to pyruvate of acetyl CoA
  103. Metaboic Vocab:
    Acetyl CoA to glycerol or fatty acids (some F.A. needed from diet; unable to synthesize= esssential F.A_)
  104. During gluconeogenesis, glucose is being created from carbohydrates, lactic acid, glycerol, and some amino acids... so is it the reverse of glycolysis?
    NOOOOO it uses a different enzymatic pathway
  105. Can Acetyl CoA generate pyruvate and therefor glucose?
    NO ... gluconeogenesis can't be reversed
  106. When your fasting, exercising, or eating a low glucse diet what can what can occur in your liver?
    glycogenolysis aka glycogen catabolism
  107. The enzyme involved in converting glycogen to glucose is _____
    glycogen phosphorylase
  108. Where is glycogen abundantly stored?
    skeletal muscles and liver
  109. Glycogenolysis (aka breaking down glycogen to glucose)
    –Storage form of glucose
    –Liver: helps maintain bloodglucose
    •Readily mobilized source of glucose
    –Exercise, fasting ordecreased dietary glucose
  110. Glycogenolysis:

    Skeletal muscle: supplies glucose for glycolysis --> ATP

    Fuel source when ATP demands are high and O2 is low in skeletal muscle
  111. LIPID Catabolism (aka lipolysis)

    Lipids are catabolized into pieces that can be converted into pyruvate or channeled directly into the TCA cycle
  112. What is the primary lipid in our body is _______
  113. Triglycerides BROKEN down in to 3 FATTY ACIDS or GLYCEROL soooooo

    Triglycerides ----> 3 FATTY ACIDS (beta oxidation in mitochondria)----> Acetyl CoA-----> TCA cycle
    Triglycerides----> Glycerol----> Pyruvic Acid -----> TCA cycle
  114. When glucose isnt ready lipid catabolism can be used to make ATP
  115. Lipid Catabolism : BETA Oxidation
    • 18 Carbon Fatty Acid molecule= 144 ATP (1.5 times greater than cataolism of a 3Carbon glucose molecule)
    • - For each 2 Carbon fragment removed from FATTY ACIDS the cells gains 12 ATP + 5 ATPs via NADH and FADH2 (ha and they say fat isnt always good!!!)
  116. Lipid Catabolism:
    Occurs in the mitochondria therefore O2 is ALWAYS needed

  117. How many ATPs are made during Lipid Catabolism (beta oxidation)
    144 ATPs
Card Set
Cellular Metabolism (not lipoproteins)
IBHS exam 2 Dr. Nickola's lecture on Cellular Metabolism