Biology flashcards leaving cert

  1. What is the function of food
    • To provide energy
    • for growth and repair
    • for chemical reactions in the body
  2. All elements present in food
    • carbon
    • nitrogen
    • oxygen
    • sulfer
    • phosphorus
    • hydrogen
  3. What are trace elements and name them
    elements needed in small amounts

    • copper
    • iron
    • zinc
  4. What are all the biomolecules
    chemicals made inside a living thing

    • carbohydrate
    • protein
    • lipid
    • vitamins
  5. equation of carbohydrates
  6. Glucose and glucose
    Glucose and fructose
    maltose and sucrose
  7. Basic unit of a protein

    consists of 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol
  8. Basic unit of a protein
    amino acid
  9. Types of proteins
    • fibrous (hair and fingernails)
    • globular (enzyme)
  10. Elements in proteins
    • carbon
    • nitrogen
    • oxygen
    • hydrogen

    • sulpher
    • phosphorus
  11. Vitamins
    • our bodies can't make vitamins
    • only needed in a small amount
    • complex carbon based substances
  12. Metabolic role of carbohydrates
    Broken down to provide energy (starch)
  13. Metabolic role of lipids
    broken down to provide energy
  14. Metabolic role of proteins
    enzyme used to control chemical reactions in our body

    hormones are used to control body reactions

    antibodies help fight infections
  15. Metabolic role of vitamin c
    helps the immune system to function properly

    helps form connective tissue (holds body structures together)
  16. The metabolic role of vitamin d
    • helps the intestine to absorb calcium
    • helps form healthy bones
  17. Structural role of carbohydrates
    cellulose helps form plant cell walls
  18. Structural role of proteins
    • keratin in hair
    • myosin in muscle
  19. Structural role of lipids
    stores fats are used in heat insulation and protection of organs

    • phospholipids
    • help form the structure of a cell membrane of  a cell
  20. Catabolic reaction
    A complex molecule broken into simpler molecules

    they release energy and require enzymes
  21. Anabolic reactions
    convert smaller molecules into larger ones
  22. Bioprocessing
    a technique in which micro-organism, living cells or their components are used to produce the desired end product
  23. Batch culture
    • a large container where bioprocessing occurs
    • fermenter
    • anaerobic bacteria
  24. Batch culture
    bacteria fo through all 5 growth phases
  25. Continous flow culture
    bacteria are maintained at log phase
  26. Anti-biotics
    substances produced by micro-organisms that stop the growth of kill other microorganisms without damaging human tissue
  27. Lichen
    an organism which is a combination of a fungus and an alga

    found in areas of no pollution
  28. Substrate
    What the fungus grows on and gets their nutrients from
  29. Columella
    feed spores
  30. Viruses are obligate parasites? explain
    They are dead when not in a living organism and they are living when inside a living organism
  31. wHY DON'T anti-biotics work
    don't have a nucleus
  32. What is a retro-virus
    • has an enzyme that converts virla rna to dna
    • e.g bacteriaophage
  33. Structure of a virus
    • protein coat (capsid)
    • DNA or RNA
  34. Difference between endo and ectoplasm
    The endoplasm has a grainy like appearance due to the presence of the food vacuole and contractile vacuole. It is fluid like.

    while the ectoplasm is soft and allows the formation of the pseudopod
  35. Turgid
    too much water moves in into plant cell. This turgor pressure is caused when the vacuole and cytoplasm push out against the cell wall.
  36. Plasmolysis
    If too much water leaves the plant cell. This occurs when the vacuole and cytoplasm shrivel and cell membrane pulls away from cell walls
  37. Immobilised enzymes
    An enzyme that is attached to an inert material such as a gel e.g sodium alginate gel
  38. Bioprocessing enzymes
    The use of enzyme-controlled reactions to produce products
  39. Bioreactor E
    A large container that holds  the enzyme
  40. Phagocytes
    • engulf bacteria e.g macrophages/monocytes
    • 5%
  41. Lymphocytes
    • make antibodies to kill bacteria
    • about 25%
Card Set
Biology flashcards leaving cert