LO1: Compare three models of health - Biomedical / Social / Biopsychosocial
- Biomedical focuses on -Individuals
- -Cure Biomedical conditions- Not all conditions can be treated
- Social focuses on -Populations
- -Prevention Social conditionsNot all conditions can be prevented
LO2: Describe the three tiers of health care - Primary, Secondary and Tertiary
Primary healthcare: Care which is provided as first point of contact with the health system. It is often focused on prevention, early detection and where appropriate, referral to a specialist or more intensive services. Eg. GP
Secondary healthcare: Treatment by specialist to whom a patient has been referred by primary care providers. Specialist rooms - eg. cardiologist, endocrinologist
Tertiary healthcare: Specialised care, usually on referral from a primary, secondary medical care professional by specialists working in a center that has personnel and facilities for special investigation or treatment. Eg. Acute hospital setting
LO3: Describe the importance of universal health care
The universal system of health coverage is where there is equal access for all members of the population to good quality health care.
Access should be equal for all people despite geography, age, ethnicity, cost of treatment.
LO4: Give an overview of health economics
Health economics relates to the desire of maximum value for money and considers both the costs and clinical outcomes when considering the cost effectiveness of a healthcare intervention.
One example of the Australian government using the principles of health economics is the development of the nine health priority areas (NHPA).
LO5: Explain the funding of the Australian healthcare system
The Commonwealth partly funds the State hospital system; with the states providing the rest of the monies from their budgets.
- Pharasudical Benefits Scheme (PBS)
- Private health insurance rebate
- Other various commonwealth incentive schemes (ie. Doctors sent to rural areas)
National Health Priority Areas (NHPA)
As at September 2017
The 9 NHPAs agreed by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council between 1996 and 2012 were: (CCIMDAAOD)
- Cancer control (first set of conditions, 1996)
- Cardiovascular health (first set of conditions, 1996)
- Injury prevention and control (first set of conditions, 1996)
- Mental health (first set of conditions, 1996)
- Diabetes mellitus (added 1997)
- Asthma (added 1999)
- Arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions (added 2002)
- Obesity (added 2008)
- Dementia (added 2012)
Difference between Clinical Governance and Clinical Risk?
- Clinical governanceis the set of relationships and responsibilities established by a health service organisation between its governing body, executive, clinicians, patients and consumers, to deliver safe and quality health care. It ensures that the community and health service organisations can be confident that systems are in place to deliver safe and high-quality health care and continuously improve services. (NSQHS) Clinical governance is defined as “A framework through which NHS organisations are accountable for continuously improving the quality of their services and safe-guarding high standards of care by creating an environment in which excellence in clinical care will flourish.” (https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.330.7506.s254-b)
- Clinical governance is a systematic approach to maintaining and improving the quality of patient care within the National Health Service, (NHS). (Wikipedia)
- Clinical risk management specifically is concerned with improving the quality and safety of health-care services by identifying the circumstances and opportunities that put patients at risk of harm and then acting to prevent or control those risks (WHO - Topic 6)