LO1: Describe what is health?
The World Health Organization defined health as“health is the state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.
Is health the same for all?
Health is individual, it is changeable, it flavours the way in which we view and interact with the world.
What is Global health?
Definitions of Global health are clustered around a core group of concepts:
•The health of populations in a global context
•Achieving equity for health for all people worldwide
•Worldwide health improvement, reduction in inequalities or disparities, and protection against global threats (Crisp, 2016, p.8).
•The term global health “refers to the study, research and practice which health issues which places the priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide” (Kaplan et al, 2009, p.1995)
LO2: Describe the health issues affecting global populations?
•Health influences: communicable diseases, new diseases, genetics and predisposition to disease
•Environmental disasters: earthquakes, fires, tsunamis, drought, flooding, cyclones, volcanoes, crop failure resulting in famine, lack of clean water, severe climatic changes
•Manmade influences: civil unrest, war, people fleeing persecution or fighting (refugees), poverty, pollution, poor sanitation, lack of a health infrastructure, safety issues, socio-political environment
•Personal influences: work, gender, education, diet, exercise, stress, early childhood, financial influences, social and cultural influences
Ten threats to global health in 2019
- 1.Air pollution and climate change
- 2.Noncommunicable diseases (not person to person. ie. Heart disease)
- 3.Global influenza pandemic
- 4.Fragile and vulnerable settings (War zones)
- 5.Antimicrobial resistance (ie. Golden staph)
- 6.Ebola and other high threat pathogens
- 7.Weak primary health care
- 8.Vaccine hesitancy
LO3: Explain how health demographics describe a populations health status?
is the objective study of characteristics
of a population.
- Population size (number of individuals in a population)
- Density (amount of space it occupies)
- Age structure (population pyramid), Fecundity (birth rates)
- Mortality (death rates)
- Sex ratio (number of males and females)
measures a populations size (number of individuals in a population), Fecundity (birth rates), sex ratio (number of males and females), age of death, population age structure (population pyramid), mortality (death rates) and cause specific
death rates, infant mortality (death of children less than 12 months of age, morbidity (illness rates).
LO4: Explain what is epidemiology
- Epidemiology is the scientific investigations of patterns of health and ill health in a given community or population.
- They are interested in the why and how diseases occur in a given population.
- They examine the causes and distribution of the disease within a group of people, a community or population.
- They do this by examining the health data for the epidemiology triad of agent, host and environment.
LO5: Explain public health
Public health is multifaceted and aims to protect the safety and improve the health of communities. This is achieved by working with different government agencies, communities and individuals through research, formulating policy, laws and regulations, education and prevention programs.
- •Public health professionals conduct scientific research to identify potential problems and hazards, track disease outbreaks, implement science based solutions to prevent or reduce health problems.
- •There are a variety of different disciplines employed within the public health sector. Some examples are First responders; Restaurant inspectors; Health educators; Scientists and researchers; Nutritionists; Community planners; Social workers; Epidemiologists; Public health physicians and nurses; Occupational health and safety professionals; Public policy makers; Sanitarians.
The World Health Organisation (2014) further categorises public health into three main functions.
- 1.Firstly, public health assesses and monitors the health of the population to identify health problems and priorities.
- 2.Secondly, public health formulates policies that are intended to address local, national and global health issues.
- 3.Lastly, public health functions to ensure the public enjoys equal access to appropriate, cost effective healthcare and services.
Public health measures?
- Clean water
- Clean air
- Screening programs
- Prevention campaigns
- Health policies, guidelines and legislation
- Surveillance and management of disease
LO6: Explain population health
Population health is a sub section of public health.
Kundig and Stoddart (2003, p.380) define population health as “the health outcomes of a group of individuals, including the distribution of such outcomes within the group,” and “argue that the field of population health includes health outcomes, patterns of health determinants, and policies and interventions that link these two”
Examples of Australian population health programs
West Australian programs
- National Bowel screening Cancer program
- National Cervical screening program
- National Breast screen program
- National Human Papillomavirus program
- National Tobacco strategy (Quit smoking campaign at www.quitnow.gov.au)
- National Alcohol strategy
- 2&5 fruit and vegetable campaign
- Free Meninococcalvaccine program
Different international models of health care:
- The Beveridge model
- The Bismarkmodel
- The National Health Insurance model
- The out of pocket model