ergonoms

  1. what standard is used for Anthropometric data
    BS PP 7310
  2. Guidelines for standard deviation from mean (and percentage of population within limits) when designing for

    cheap economy
    • +/- 1.645s
    • 90%
  3. Guidelines for standard deviation from mean (and percentage of population within limits) when designing for

    premium economy
    • 2s
    • 99.73%
  4. Guidelines for standard deviation from mean (and percentage of population within limits) when designing for

    1st class
    • 4s
    • 99.9937%
  5. Guidelines for standard deviation from mean (and percentage of population within limits) when designing for

    safety
    • 5s
    • 99.999943%
  6. Guidelines for standard deviation from mean (and percentage of population within limits) when designing for

    critical safety
    • 6s
    • 99.9999998%
  7. how do calculate standard deviation for 95%le?
    why use 95%le?
    • s=(95%le-5%le)/3.29
    • s=(95%le-50%le)/1.645
    • can be calculated from 5% and/or 95% points
    • data often available for 5% and 95% points
  8. how do calculate number of std. dev. from mean?
    • z=|X-L|/s
    • x - mean
    • L - value in question
    • s - standard deviation
  9. what human height intervals should be used when designing
    • 95%le male
    • 5%le female
  10. is a standard anthropometric data table suitable for all applications? why?
    • no
    • the data are usually only for young, healthy adults. people put on weight when they age, different designs may appeal to different demographics with different data
  11. 7 ergonomics factors to consider in car design
    • driver visibility
    • mirrors
    • steering ratio
    • pedal design
    • seat design
    • wheel changing
    • dashboard
  12. what to consider in car design w.r.t.
    driver visibility
    • pillars (esp. A pillars) give potentially dangerous blind spots. minimise these
    • height is a trade off - low = better aero performance, high = better visibility
  13. what to consider in car design w.r.t.
    mirrors
    • flat interior mirror gives true distance perception
    • curved side mirrors give wider FOV (but vehicles are closer than they appear)
    • blind spots behind driver's shoulders. minimise these with careful mirror design
  14. what to consider in car design w.r.t.
    steering ratio
    • racing cars - low ratio - v responsive. can be dangerous for normal cars
    • balance to be found - too high, not responsive; too low, too responsive
  15. what to consider in car design w.r.t.
    pedal design
    • enough movement for precision, within range of a foot
    • sideways spacing designed for extremes of foot size
    • enough resistance to spring back, but not too hard for long distances
  16. what to consider in car design w.r.t.
    seat design
    • minimise vibration imparted to driver
    • allow adjustment
    • crash protection - including head support
    • bucket shape - prevent sideways movement
  17. what to consider in car design w.r.t.
    wheel changing
    • easy to use jack and spanner (forces and alignment)
    • easy to assemble wheel (including alignment)
  18. what are the main goals of displays
    • alert operator to danger in a clear way
    • minimise distraction
    • maximise speed of communication
  19. conventions for colour and flashing (with examples)
    • slow flashing light - warning (low outside temp)
    • fast flashing light - danger (overheating engine)
    • red - danger (open door)
    • yellow - warning (low fuel)
    • green - safe (green light)
    • fast beep - danger (parking sensor)
  20. guidelines for good man-machine interface
    • use iconic images
    • optimal proximity (e.g. radio controls on steering wheel to keep hands there)
    • sensible orientation - controls should follow direction of movement (e.g. turn indicator)
    • size - easy to read
    • good grouping - have controls in logical groups
    • clear emergency and switch off buttons
  21. why include a central braking light?
    • rear lights shine red when braking
    • not v clear at night with tail lights on
    • most cars have central top brake light that only comes on when braking
    • improves safety by better distinguish between braking and not braking
  22. what hapen 1 july 2002, uberlingen, germany?
    (man-machine interface case study)
    • passenger jet + cargo jet flying at 36k feet on collision course
    • ATC was working 2 workstations at the same time, didn't realise problem in time - failed to keep the aircraft at safe distance from each other
    • only realised <1minute before accident
    • contacted passenger jet, instructed pilot to descend 1k feet to avoid collision with cargo plane.
    • plane starts to descend, but traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) instructed passenger plane to ascend, while instructing cargo plane to descend.
    • if both planes followed TCAS instructions, all would have been groovy. but it wasn't to be
    • cargo plane pilot followed TCAS and started descending
    • passenger jet pilot had to decide between following ATC or TCAS instructions.
    • because already commenced descent, as ordered by ATC, they continued descent. 
    • thus both planes were descending together and collided :(

    enquiry

    • ATCs guilty of negligence
    • controller shouldn't have been operating 2 stations
    • unfortunate russian culture of giving preference to verbal rather than computer instructions.
    • pilots need more guidance on responding to conflicting instructions
    • ATC need more guidance on giving clearer instructions
  23. Vibration data (ISO 2631):
    frequency bands, and effects
    • 0.1-20Hz - instability and difficulty balancing
    • 0.1-0.6Hz - motion sickness
    • 4-10Hz - Trunk resonates (damage to organs and spine)
    • 30 - Head and neck resonate
    • 60-100Hz - eyes vibrate, blurred vision
    • 10-18Hz - urge to urinate
    • 13-20Hz - speech disturbed
  24. use of vibration level charts?
    • give exposure limit -  halfway towards pain threshold
    • find fatigue decreased proficiency boundary - design for working
    • find reduced comfort boundary - design for comfort
  25. how do adjust strength data to fit certain demographics?
    multiply by each relevant factor:

    use factor

    • one off - 1
    • occasional - 0.6
    • frequent - 0.3
    • continuous - 0.15

    age factor

    • 20 - 0.9
    • 30 - 1
    • 45 - 0.9
    • 60 - 0.8

    gender factor - female: 0.5
Author
JonnyMillar
ID
347086
Card Set
ergonoms
Description
ergonomnoms
Updated