Endocrinology

  1. What is a hormone?
    • Chemical messenger
    • Produced and secreted by specialised endocrine gland
    • Transported in blood 
    • Distant target organ
    • Where is elicits a physiological response
  2. What is paracrine and autocrine signalling?
    • Local hormones
    • Autocrine is when a cell does it to itself
    • Paracrine is when a cell does it to neighbouring cells
  3. What are the three types of hormone?
    Which are hydrophobic and which are hydrophilic?
    • Protein/Peptide - e.g. Growth hormone
    • Cholesterol Derivatives - e.g. Steroids and Vitamins
    • Modified Amino Acids - e.g. Adrenaline, Thyroid Hormones 
  4. How are hormone signalling pathways regulated?
    • Regulation of hormone
    • secretion and processing of prehormones
    • Regulation of receptor
    • → Isoform - same hormone different receptor form elicits different response
    • → expression - same receptor but on different tissue with different intracellular proteins
    • → number - down-regulation removes receptors, up-reg adds
    • → affinity of receptor - open/closed conformation
    • Regulation of intracellular signalling pathway
  5. What is amplification?
    • Small intracellular molecules (e.g. Ca2+, cAMP) 
    • → produced in large amounts as response to extracellular signal
    • → activate downstream signalling molecules
  6. What are the hormones produced by the posterior pituitary?
    • Oxytocin
    • Vasopressin (ADH → anti-diuretic hormone)
  7. What are the hormones produced by the anterior pituitary?
    • Single polypeptide chain hormones:
    • ACTH - Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
    • GH - Growth hormone
    • PRL - Prolactin

    • Multi-subunit polypeptide chain hormones: Common alpha unit, different beta unit
    • LH - Luteinizing hormone
    • FSH - Follicle stimulating hormone 
    • TSH - Thryoid stimulating hormone
Author
Hebe
ID
347046
Card Set
Endocrinology
Description
Endocrinology
Updated