1. Where did the art of Rhetoric originate?
    Art of Rhetoric mid-400 BC in Syracuse, Sicily-Sicilians overthrew regime and formed democratic society- first task bring leagal calims against tyrannical government
  2. What was the focus of early retoric
    • Corax and Tisias-first theorists and teachers of rhetoric- taught citizens how to present claims forcefully and effectively.
    • Invention, Organization, Style, Memory, and Delivery
  3. Where did Comm. Studies departments originate?
    • In liberal education in Ivy League schools
    • 1800's, early 1900's, part of English department
  4. What was the focus of early departments?
    • Emphasis on teaching
    • Focus Public speaking
  5. How has the focus in communications studies changed?
    • Emphasis is broader, from public speaking to speech to communication
    • Includes analysis and research, different forms of communication
  6. Communication according to Woods is...
    A systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols tovcreate & interpret meaning.
  7. Describe the SYSTEMIC element of communication
    - a system made up of interrelated parts, can be broken•down and analyzed
  8. Describe the PROCESS element of communication
    ongoing and dynamic, always in motion, continually•changing
  9. What is MEANING
    socially mediated mental representation, what something•signifies to us, we communicate meaning through symbols; content &relationship level meaning
  10. Explain the Linear Models of Communication
    • One-way, one person acting on another person
    • Too simplistic
  11. Interactive Model of Communication
    • Added feedback (response to a message, intentional or unintentional, verbalor non-verbal) & personal fields of experience
    • Communication as a sequential process
  12. Transactional Model of Communication
    • Both parties are communicators, participating equally & simultaneously
    • Shows communication changing over time
    • Within systems or contexts (physical, historical, cultural, & relational) thatinclude shared systems of communicators & the personal systems of eachcommunicator
  13. 3 stages of inquiry, including the 3 types of questions asked by research scholars.
    • 1.Ask Questions
    • 3 types of Q's asked by research scholars§
    • Q's of definition§ Q's of fact§ Q's of value
    • 2.Observations
    • 3.Constructing Answers
  14. 3 types of scholarship (be able to compare/contrast as well as identify what field of study is appropriate to each)
    • 1. Natural Science
    • Objective, Depends on standardization of method
    • Scientific-philosophicalposition
    • 2. Humanistic
    • Subjective Focus on individual &social worlds Does NOT separate knower from known
    • 3. Social Sciences
    • Objective Uses scientific methodologies "humans" as object of study
  15. What are experimental & non-experimental designs of research? How are they different?
    • EXPERIMENTAL controls all variables except for oneo
    • NON-EXPERIMENTAL doesn't manipulate variables; choose variables,describe and measure them, & analyze the relationship
  16. What is researcher bias & what can be done about it?
    • RESEARCHER BIAS is any intentional or unintentional influence theexperimenter exerts on a subject in an attempt to confirm the hypothesiso
    • Solutions: 1) train experimenters better, 2) standardization, and 3) setup "blind research" (where experimenters are unaware of the hypothesis)
  17. How is rhetoric connected to persuasion?
    • Makes us suspicious & mistrusting of rhetoric
    • Creates interest to learn how to persuade others
  18. ART OF RHETORIC (def.)
    the systematic and intentional practice of effective symbolic expression
  19. Purposes of Rhetor
    • To persuade
    • To achieve clarity through the structured use of symbols
    • To create beauty through the aesthetic potential in symbols
    • To develop mutual understanding through careful management of meanings
  20. SYMBOLS (def.)
    • abstract, arbitrary, and ambiguous representations of other things
    • any mark, sign, gesture or sound that communicates meaning basedon
    • social agreement
  21. RHETOR (def.)
    the speaker, person creating or presenting a message
    the actual speaking, what is created and studied
    the systematic presentation of the art of rhetoric, theprinciples of effectiveness, explanations on how rhetoric achieves its goals, anddescriptions of rhetoric's various functions
  24. Characteristics of Rhetorical Discourse
    • Planned
    • Adapted to an audience
    • Shaped by human motives
    • Responsive to a situation
    • Persuasion-seeking
    • Addresses contingent issues
  25. Social Functions of Rhetoric
    • 1.Ideas are tested
    • 2.Advocacy is assisted
    • 3.Power is distributed
    • 4.Facts are discovered
    • 5.Knowledge is shaped
    • 6.Builds community
  26. MOTIVE (def.):
    commitments goals desires are purposes that lead to action
  27. IDEOLOGY (def.)
    a system of belief, or framework for interpreting the world.
Card Set
Communication Studies Test one flash cards