what is placental abruption?
premature separation of a normally situated placenta occurring after 22 weeks gestation
when does placental abruption occur?
occurring after 22 weeks of pregnancy
where does bleeding occur?
- between the placenta and wall of the uterus
- where the placenta has detached from the uterine wall
placental abruption accounts for how many of all cases of antepartum haemorrhage?
30% of all cases
what may placental abruption be?
revealed or concealed
what are the risk factors for placental abruption?
- PIH/ pre eclampsia
- multiple pregs
- threatened miscarriage earlier in current preg
- smoking and substance abuse
- previous C section
- intrauterine infection
what are the symptoms of of placental abruption?
- CONTINUOUS SEVERED/ SUDDEN ABDOMINAL OR BACK PAIN
- placental abruption commonly have concealed bleeding but may also have revealed bleeding
- there is a risk of underestimating the amount of blood loss
- 50ml of revealed blood loss in preg is considered significant
- tender abdomen- rigid or woody,no signs of relaxation
Clinical sign- warning bleed
Clinical sign- abdominal pain
- PP- usually painless
- PA- Yes- sudden continuous severe/ back pain
Clinical sign- blood loss colour
- PP- bright red, fresh blood
- PA- dark red/ brown
Clinical sign- degree of shock
- PP- proportional to loss
- PA- disproportional to loss
Clinical sign- consistency of uterus
- pp- soft, non tender
- PA- tense, hard, woody, no sign of relaxation
Clinical sign-abdominal girth
- PP- equal to gestation
- PA- possibly increase due to blood loss
what should you take to hospital?
blood soaked pads