EKG lecture one

  1. Atherosclerosis
    • build-up of fatty plaque in inner layer of vessels
    • obstructs blood flow
  2. Myocardial ischemia
    insufficient blood flow through the heart, usually during exercise
  3. Myocardial Infarction (MI)
    "heart attack", blood clot blocks vessel
  4. signs of cardiovascular disease
    • Pain, discomfort (or other anginal equivalent) in the chest, neck, jaw, arms, or other areas that may be due to ischemia Shortness of breath at rest or with mild exertion
    • Dizziness or syncope
    • Ankle edema
    • Palpitations or tachycardia
    • Intermittent claudication
    • Known heart murmur
    • Unusual fatigue or shortness of breath with usual activities
  5. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease that can NOT be changed?
    Family history
  6. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease that CAN be changed?
    • Cigarette Smoking
    • Hypertension
    • Hypercholesterolemia
    • Impaired Fasting Glucose (diabetes mellitus)
    • obesity (sedentary lifestyle)
  7. Atherosclerosis is reversible to a degree, what can you do to reverse it?
    • Management of Risk Factors
    • Medical intervention
    • Diet
    • Exercise
    • Appropriate body composition
  8. What is Cardiac Rehabilitation?
    Multi-phase approach to assist in the recovery from or the prevention of a cardiac event (include exercise programs and classes on risk factor reduction and the benefits of a healthy lifestyle)
  9. Cardiac Rehabilitation has been shown to reduce death rates in patients after an MI by what percent?
    25%, early mobalization after a heart attack is better than extended bed rest
  10. What is the goal of the 1st phase of cardiac rehab?
    • Goal: To offset the deleterious effects of
    • bed rest and prepare for phase II (low/moderate exercise program)
  11. What is the education given in the 1st phase of cardiac rehab?
    Teach risk factors, survival skills (symptom recognition, plan of action, use of medication), counseling
  12. What is the goal of the 2nd phase of cardiac rehab?
    To restore patient to optimal functional ability (monitored exercise, frequent evaluations)
  13. What is the education of the 2nd phase of cardiac rehab?
    • Risk factor reduction
    • Lifestyle modifications
    • Clinical issues (diabetes, hypertension, etc.)
    • Stress management
    • Medication
    • Goal setting
  14. What are the goals of the 3rd phase of cardiac rehab?
    Continue with improvements from phase II, some supervised exercise, teach self motivated exercise, education, encourage lifestyle habits
Card Set
EKG lecture one