Physiology of pregnancy

  1. how is pregnancy measured?
    from first day of last menstrual period up to 42 weeks
  2. how many weeks is each trimester?
    • 1st- 1-12 weeks + 6 days
    • 2nd- 13-25 weeks + 6 days
    • 3rd- 26+ weeks
  3. what are the changes to the respiratory system?
    • increase RR 
    • increase resp effort 
    • increase in tidal volume 
    • decrease in vital capacity 
    • diaphragm is elevated and lower ribs flare
  4. how much does the average maternal heart rate increase by?
    10-15 bpm
  5. how much does cardiac output increase in the first 10 weeks and at term?
    • first 10 weeks 20-30% 
    • term 50%
  6. what happens to blood pressure while pregnant?
    • decreases in SBP and DBP 
    • by an average of 10-15 mmHg 
    • returning to normal at term
  7. what happens to circulating blood volume? and what does this mean?
    • increases by 45-50% 
    • can tolerate greater blood loss before showing signs and symptoms of shock
  8. what is there a disproportionate change in and what does this mean?
    • increase in RBC compared to increase in plasma volume 
    • means pt is anaemic
  9. what relaxes when pregnant?
    cardiac sphincter
  10. what do pt have an increased predisposition to?
    gall stones
  11. what are the gums prone to?
    • bleeding 
    • spongy 
    • friable
  12. what happens to the larynx?
  13. what happens to the kidneys and ureters?
    • kidneys increase in weight 
    • ureters dilate and lengthen to accommodate the growing uterus
  14. what does gravid mean?
  15. what does pressure of the gravid uterus on the ureters cause?
    • urinary stasis 
    • static urine predisposed risk of developing UTI
  16. what happens to the frequency of urination?
    • increases 
    • pressure of gravid uterus on bladder and reduced bladder capacity 
    • may have incontinence
  17. what changes happen to the uterus?
    • increase blood flow 
    • increased size
    • increase muscle
  18. what happens to the cervix/ vagina?
    • increased blood flow, darkening 
    • secretions increase- mucus plug 
    • increase in elastic tissue-stretching
  19. what changes happen to the skin?
    • connective/ elastic tissue stretch and straighten
    • striae
  20. what changes happen to the breasts?
    • enlarge 
    • can develop striae 
    • colostrum mid preg 
    • (first milk production) 
    • milk production post birth
Card Set
Physiology of pregnancy
Physiology of pregnancy