Nausea Vomiting Pharmacology

  1. Ondanestron (zofran) is which type of antiemetic medication?
    Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist
  2. How can serotonin lead to vomiting?
    • Serotonin binds receptor on vagus nerve and can send input to the vomiting center
    • So antagonist of the serotonin receptor would block that
  3. Which anti emetic is indicated when there is acute infectious gastroenteritis?
    Sertonoin 5HT receptor antagonist (Ondanestron)
  4. What are adverse effects of 5-HT antagonist (Ondanestron)?
    • HA, dizziness, constipation
    • Prolonged QT interval
  5. Which antiemetic can cause prolonged QT interval?
    Serotonin 5HT3 receptor antagonist (Ondanestron)
  6. Dexamethasone is a _______ that is given with 5HT antagonists as antiemetic treatment
  7. what is the therapeutic use for corticosteroid?
    Enhance efficacy of serotonin 5HT3 receptor antagonist
  8. What is aprepitant?
    It is a neurokinin receptor antagonist (NK1). Taken orally only
  9. Where is the NK1 receptor located?
    In the area postrema, that is why NK1 antagonist works to stop vomiting
  10. True/false: NK1 antagonists (aprepitant) are metabolized by CYP3A4
  11. What are adverse effects of NK1 antagonist (aprepitant)?
    Fatigue, dizziness, diarrhea
  12. Why do NK1 antagonist (aprepitant) cause decreased INR in patients taking warfarin?
    Because it induces CYP2C9, which is important in metabolizing warfarin
  13. True/false: Ondanestron delays emesis more than standard therapy
    False; Aprepitant delays emesis more than standard therapy
  14. Agents of phenothiazines:
    • Promethazine
    • prochlorperazine
    • Dopamine antagonist
  15. MOA of phenothiazine?
    Dopamine (D2) receptor or muscarinic receptor antagonist
  16. Adverse effects of phenothiazine:
    • Constipation
    • Dry mouth (cuz muscarinic receptor blocker)
    • Parkinsonism
    • Blurred vision and sedation (sedation because of histamine blocker)
  17. Which drug is a contraindication if pt has CNS depression?
  18. MOA of metoclopramide:
    Central blockage of dopamine receptor in the brain, thereby increase ACh release and increase gastric emptying
  19. Patients with impaired gastric emptying (gastroparesis), should use _____
  20. Adverse effect of metoclopramide:
    Restlessness, insomnia, anxiety
  21. MOA for scopolamine:
  22. Patient recovering from anesthesia and surgery and use ____ to prevent N/v
  23. Route of administration for scopolamine:
    Oral, parental, transdermal patch
  24. Adverse effects of scopolamine?
    Sedation and dry mouth (because it is a antimuscarinic drug)
  25. Which drug is contraindicated if pt has angle-closure glaucoma?
  26. _____ is man made analog of THC
  27. What is the MOA of cannabinoids when it comes to antiemetic effect?
    We don’t know. Not understood
  28. Which antiemetic drug can stimulate appetite?
    Dronabinol (cannabinoid)
  29. What are adverse effects of Dronabinol?
    • Euphoria
    • Dysphoria
    • Sedation
    • Hallucination
    • Increased appetite
  30. Which drug is used to treat vomiting that is related to anxiety?
    Benzodiazepines – Lorazepam, diazepam
Card Set
Nausea Vomiting Pharmacology
GI Midterm- Pharmacology