Abnormal Psychology chapter 13

  1. What symptoms are most improved with the use of antipsychotic medication?
    Positive symptoms, such as hallucination. 

    Some beneficial effects on problems such as agitation and hostility may be noticed within a week after the patient begins taking them, but two or three weeks before improvement is seen with regard to psychotic symptoms.
  2. Another term for disorganized speech
    thought disorder
  3. What has research shown concerning the link between schizophrenia and the lateral ventricles of the brain?
    Some people have mildly to moderately enlarged lateral ventricles. The changes occur early and may play a role in the onset.
  4. What do cross-cultural studies of schizophrenia rates show?
    Although the frequency of schizophrenia varies around the world, it expressed in terms of similar symptoms in different cultures. Most experts believe that the more favorable clinical out come that was observed in India and Nigeria is a product of the greater tolerance and acceptance extended to people with psychotic symptoms in developing countries . This data testifies to the important influences of culture in shaping the experience and expression of psychotic symptoms.
  5. Most common age for appearance of schizophrenia
    between the ages of 15 and 35
  6. What are patient controls in studies of schizophrenic patients used to do?
    Research studies in the field of psychopathology. They are the people who have some other form of mental disorder.
  7. What does the DSM require to be ruled out to diagnose schizophrenia?
    mood disorders
  8. Why, based on the social selection hypothesis, is the rate of schizophrenia higher in the lower classes in the US?
    Low  social class is an outcome of schizophrenia. Those who develop schizophrenia may be less able than others to complete the highest level education so they fall into the lowest social class.
  9. What is expressed emotion?
    When people express hostility toward the patient or repeatedly criticized the patient's behavior.
  10. What are expressed emotions thought to influence in families?
    The knowledge and beliefs about their family member's problems. Relatives find it easier to accept the most obvious positive symptoms as being the product of a mental disorder. They have less tolerance towards negative symptoms such as social withdrawal. 

    The patients influence their relatives' attitude s and the family influences the patient and it becomes a negative cycle of interactions.
  11. How do positive and negative symptoms compare when looking at them over time?
    They fluctuate in severity over time.
  12. Why did the DSM-5 eliminate subtypes of schizophrenia?
    • The evidence on which they are based was weak. 
    • The subtypes also have relatively poor diagnostic reliability and are frequently unstable over time. 

    Patients who fit a traditional subcategory during one psychotic episode frequently qualified for a different subtype diagnosis during a subsequent episode. 

    The subtypes weren't very meaningful but only reminding us that the disorder is heterogenous in nature.
  13. What is avolition?
    The withdrawal, indecisiveness, ambivalence, and a loss of will power.
  14. What are delusions?
    idiosyncratic beliefs that are rigidly held in spite of their preposterous nature. 

    Wrong definition - False beliefs based on incorrect inferences about reality.
  15. If someone starts showing preliminary symptoms of schizophrenia, what phase of the disorder is the person in?
    prodromal phase
  16. What describes differences in gender in the rate of schizophrenia?
    Men are 30 to 40 percent more likely to develop schizophrenia than women.
  17. What is true about second-generation antipsychotic drugs?
    They are frequently called atypical antipsychotics because they are less likely than the classical antipsychotics t produce unpleasant motor side effects. 

    They are at least as effective as traditional drugs for the treatment of positive symptoms of schizophrenia. 

    They are useful in maintenance treatment to reduce the risk of relapse. 

    They are less likely to produce tardive dyskinesia. 13% vs. 32%

    They are not significantly more effective for treating negative symptoms and have side effects of weight gain and obesity.
  18. What is the program looking to improve the cognitive abilities of schizophrenic patients known as?
    Cognitive enhancement therapy
  19. What do current neurochemical hypotheses focus on within schizophrenia?
    THey focus on a broad array of neurotransmitters like serotonin pathways .
  20. What does disorganized speech “look” like?
    Irrelevant responses to questions, expressing disconnected ideas, and using words in peculiar ways.
  21. Identify the long-term prognosis for patients who experience brief psychotic disorder
    It's good for most patients who experience a brief episode of psychosis.
  22. If a patient improves from the most dramatic symptoms of psychosis but they are still impaired, what is that phase of schizophrenia called?
    residual phase
  23. Looking at the studies done in Chicago over 70 years ago, what is the relationship between the rate of schizophrenia and social class.
    They found that the highest prevalence of schizophrenia was found in neighborhoods of the lowest socioeconomic status. There is evidence supporting an inverse relationship between social class and schizophrenia.
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Abnormal Psychology chapter 13
chapter 13