Intestinal Nematode Microbiology

  1. Which nematodes if ingested their eggs will get you sick?
    • Enterobius
    • Ascaris
    • Trichuris trichiura
    • (think: EAT)
  2. Which is the nematode that has adult forms outside the human body (ie in the soil)?
  3. Which is the infectious stage of nematode larvae: filariform or rhabditiform?
  4. Rhabditiform larvae is the _____ stage of nematode larvae
    Feeding, noninfectious
  5. In which species of nematodes are eggs the diagnostic stage?
    • Enterobius vermicularis
    • Trichuris trichiura
    • Ascaris lumbricoides
    • Ancylostoma duodenale (or Necator americanus)
  6. Strongylodies have larvae in _____, while Trichinella have larvae in ____?
    • Stool (think Strongylodies – Stool)
    • Muscle
  7. Enterobius vermicularis is also known as____
  8. Where does Adult Enterobius vermicularis (pinworms) mate?
  9. Which nematodes is most commonly found in small children?
    Enterobius vermicularis
  10. True/false: Female pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis) migrate out of anus and lay eggs on perianal skin at night
  11. Enterobius vermicularis infective stage is ____, diagnostic stage is ____
    • Embryonated egg (ingested)
    • Eggs
  12. True/false: Enterobius vermicularis eggs are often found in the stools
    False;e they are NOT found in stools
  13. What is the treatment for Enterobius vermicularis?
    Albendazole, mebendazole
  14. True/false: Enterobius vermicularis eggs look like footballs with plugs on the sides
    False; Enterobius vermicularis eggs do look like football but with a line down the middle. One with plugs on side = Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
  15. Scotch tape is used to recovered eggs of which nematode?
    Enterobius (pinworm)
  16. What do the eggs of Trichuris trichiura look like?
    Football with plugs at the ends
  17. What is the infected stage of Trichuris trichiura?
    Eggs ingestion from food or water contaminated with human feces
  18. Where do eggs of Trichuris trichiura hatch?
    In the small intestine – larvae differentiate into immature adults (like our class)
  19. True/false: Trichuris trichiura larvae mature in the small intestine
    False; they are hatched in the small intestines, but they migrate to the large intestine to mature
  20. True/false: Trichuris trichiura unembryonated eggs in human feces get deposited in warm moist soil and form embryos
  21. True/false: unembryonated Trichuris trichiura eggs are ingested and that is the infective stage
    False: it is embryonated eggs that are ingested, unembryonated ones are once found in the soil
  22. Which nematodes can cause iron-deficiency anemia?
    Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
  23. Which nematode can cause rectal prolapse in children?
    Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
  24. What is treatmet for whipworm?
    Albendazole (also used in treatment for enterobius)
  25. Giant roundworms are _______, a nematode
    Ascaris lumbricoides
  26. Which is the largest nematode?
    Ascaris lumbricoides
  27. How can humans get infected with Ascaris lumbricoides?
    Ingesting eggs in food or water contaminated human feces
  28. Describe life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides:
    • Eggs ingested
    • Larvae emerge in the intestine-> enter bloodstream, migrate to lungs and the ascend to bronchi trachea pharynx and swallowed
  29. True/false: Ascaris lumbricoides can cause pneumonitis because it goes up to the lungs
  30. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs look _____
  31. True/false: Ascaris lumbricoides treatment is just like treatment for Enterobius- albendazole and mebendazole
  32. Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus are _____
    Hookworms ; they are indistinguishable form each other
  33. Humans are infected with hookworms when _______larvae in ____ penetrate the skin
    • Filariform
    • Moist soil
  34. True/false: hookworms are infected with ingestion of embryonated eggs
    False; hookworms in most soil penetrate the skin to infect humans
  35. Hookworms larvae migrate to the ______ once it is inside the human, adult hookworms attach to ______, eggs are passed in _____
    • Lungs
    • Intestinal mucosa
    • Human feces
  36. Which nematode infection could cause microcytic anemia?
    Hookworm infection
  37. True/false: hookworms can cause perianal itching as the females leave at night to deposit egg on the perianal skin
    False; this statement is true for enterobius (pinworm). Hookworms can cause GROUND ITCH at site of larval entry
  38. Which nematodes could cause pneumonia/pneumonitis?
    Hookworms and Ascaris and Strongyloides stercoralis
  39. What is treatment for hookworm?
    albendazole and mebendazole
  40. Strongyloides stercoralis are also known as ___
  41. Which nematode infections usually involved the feet?
    Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis
  42. True/false: Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm filariform larvae penetrate the skin, and migrate to lungs to get swallowed
  43. True/false: Strongyloides stercoralis egg are diagnostic
    False; rhabitidiform larve is the diagnostic stage. Eggs of Strongyloides stercoralis hatch in the intestines
  44. True/false: autoinfection of Strongyloides stercoralis can become a complication in immunocompromised patients
  45. Nematodes that can cause ground itch and cutaneous larva migrans are:
    Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm
  46. How to distinguish between hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis?
    Diagnostic stages are different
  47. True/false: Strongyloides stercoralis treatment is albendazole and mebendazole, just like with hookworms
    False; Strongyloides stercoralis is treated with ivermectin
  48. Pork roundworm is _____
  49. Encysted trichinella larvae are found in ______
    Muscle of animals
  50. How do humans get exposed to Trichinella?
    Eating raw meat
  51. True/false: Trichinella infections is through ingestion of embryonated eggs
    False; it is through ingestion of raw meat containing encysted larva
  52. True/false: Trichinella adult worms form in intestine and produce larvae that enter bloodstream and encyst in human muscle
  53. Which nematode infections could cause subconjunctival hemorrhages?
    Trichinella ---think James Harden eating raw pork
  54. Which nematode infection might result in congested heart failure because it effects striated muscle?
  55. What is treatment for muscle larvae of Trichinella?
    There is no treatment for muscle larvae
  56. How to treat Trichinella symptomatically?
    Steroids plus albendazole ; mebendazole is effective against adult in eary infection
Card Set
Intestinal Nematode Microbiology
GI Midterm- Microbiology